Chapter 11  The Conditional Tense

The conditional tense is translated in English by the use of words such as could, may, might, ought, should, or would. In Italian, the translation for the words could, may, or might is done by using potere.

The translation for the words ought or should is done by using dovere.  When the English word would is used to indicate a past action (He would get up early), the Italian translation is done by the imperfect past tense. 

When the word could is used to mean unable, the Italian translation is done using imperfect past tense of potere.

As with the future tense, some of the verbs are irregular, and the irregularities of the future tense apply here.
There is only one set of endings for all the verbs.

Pronunciation note:  In the loro form, the accent falls on the third to last vowel.  The other forms are accented on the second to last vowel.

Group 1 verbs end in -are.  The infinitive is modified by replacing the “a” with “e”, and the endings (-i, -sti, -bbe, -mmo, -ste, -bbero) are added to the modified infinitive.

Occasionally, it is necessary to change the spelling to preserve the original sound of a verb, such as pagare  >  pagherẹi.

Verbs which end with "ciare" or "giare" drop the "i", for example lasciare  >  lasceręi.  The following examples use six verbs.

I would pay Io pagare pagherẹi (pah-gay-rAY-ee)
You would begin Tu cominciare comincerẹsti (coh-meen-chay-rAY-stee)
He, she, who would speak Lei, Lui, Chi parlare parlerebbe (pahr-lay-rEHb-bay)
We would fly Noi volare volerẹmmo (voh-lay-rAYm-moh)
You would eat Voi mangiare mangerẹste (mahn-jay-rAY-stay)
They, who would buy Loro, Chi comprare comprerębbero (cohm-pray-rEHb-bay-roh)

In group 1, there are four irregular verbs in the conditional tense, andare, dare, fare, and stare.
andare, to go :andręi, andręsti, andrebbe, andręmmo, andręste, andrębbero
dare, to give: daręi, daręsti, darebbe, daręmmo, daręste, darębbero
fare, to do: faręi, faręsti, farebbe, faręmmo, faręste, farębbero
stare, to be: staręi, staręsti, starebbe, staręmmo, staręste, starębbero

Group 2 verbs end in -ere or -rre.  The endings (-i, -sti, -bbe, -mmo, -ste, -bbero) are added to the infinitive.
The following example uses the verb vẹndere, to sell

I would sell Io vẹndere venderẹi (vayn-day-rAY-ee)
you would sell Tu vẹndere venderẹsti (vayn-day-rAY-stee)
He, she, who would sell Lei, Lui, Chi vẹndere venderebbe (vayn-day-rEHb-bay)
We would sell Noi vẹndere venderẹmmo (vayn-day-rAYm-moh)
You would sell Voi vẹndere venderẹste (vayn-day-rAY-stay)
They, who would sell Loro, Chi vẹndere venderębbero (vayn-day-rEHb-bay-roh)

In group 2, some verbs are irregular in the conditional tense.
avere, to have:  avrẹi, avrẹsti, avrebbe, avrẹmmo, avrẹste, avrębbero
bevere, to drink:  berrẹi, berrẹsti, berrebbe, berrẹmmo, berrẹste, berrębbero
                Like bevere:         imbevere, to imbibe

cadere, to fall:  cadrẹi, cadrẹsti, cadrebbe, cadrẹmmo, cadrẹste, cadrębbero
Like cadere accadere, to befall decadere, to decay
ricadere, to relapse, fall again scadere, to decline, deteriorate

cuǫcere
, to cook:  cocerẹi, cocerẹsti, cocerebbe, cocerẹmmo, cocerẹste, cocerębbero
Like cuǫcere: commuǫvere, to move emotionally muǫvere, to move
nuǫcere, to harm percuǫtere, to strike promuǫvere, to promote
ricuǫcere, to recook rimuǫvere, to remove riscuǫtere, to draw a salary
scuǫcere, to overcook scuǫtere, to shake smuǫvere, to budge
sommuǫvere, to incite, stir up stracuǫcere, to overdo

dolere, to ache:  dorrẹi, dorrẹsti, dorrebbe, dorrẹmmo, dorrẹste, dorrębbero
dovere, to be obliged:  dovrẹi, dovrẹsti, dovrebbe, dovrẹmmo, dovrẹste, dovrębbero
ęssere, to be:  sarẹi, sarẹsti, sarebbe, sarẹmmo, sarẹste, sarębbero
parere, to seem:  parrẹi, parrẹsti, parrebbe, parrẹmmo, parrẹste, parrębbero
potere, to be able:  potrẹi, potrẹsti, potrebbe, potrẹmmo, potrẹste, potrębbero
rimanere, to stay:  rimarrẹi, rimarrẹsti, rimarrebbe, rimarrẹmmo, rimarrẹste, rimarrębbero
sapere, to know:  saprẹi, saprẹsti, saprebbe, saprẹmmo, saprẹste, saprębbero

tenere, to hold:  terrẹi, terrẹsti, terrebbe, terrẹmmo, terrẹste, terrębbero
Like tenere: appartenere, to belong to contenere, to contain
detenere, to detain mantenere, to maintain ottenere, to obtain
ritenere, to retain sostenere, to sustain trattenere, to restrain

valere, to be worth:  varrẹi, varrẹsti, varrebbe, varrẹmmo, varrẹste, varrębbero
                Like valere:                                           equivalere, to be equivalent to
                invalere, to catch on , become fashionable                 prevalere, to be prevalent, to prevail

vedere, to see:  vedrẹi, vedrẹsti, vedrebbe, vedrẹmmo, vedrẹste, vedrębbero
Like vedere: antivedere, to foresee intravedere, to glimpse
prevedere, to see ahead provedere, to provide, look after rivedere, to see again
stravedere, to see things, hallucinate travedere, to be misled

volere
, to be willing:  vorrẹi, vorrẹsti, vorrebbe, vorrẹmmo, vorrẹste, vorrębbero
Like volere: benvolere, to like someone
disvolere, to stop liking someone malvolere, to dislike someone rivolere, to want something back

Group 3 verbs end in -ire.  The endings (-i, -sti, -bbe, -mmo, -ste, -bbero) are added to the infinitive.
The following example uses the verb finire, to finish, to end

I would end Io finire finirẹi (fee-nee-rAY-ee)
you would end Tu finire finirẹsti (fee-nee-rAY-stee)
He, she, who would end Lei, Lui, Chi finire finirebbe (fee-nee-rEHb-bay)
We would end Noi finire finirẹmmo (fee-nee-rAYm-moh)
You would end Voi finire finirẹste (fee-nee-rAY-stay)
They, who would end Loro, Chi finire finirębbero (fee-nee-rEHb-bay-roh)

In group 3, some verbs are irregular in the conditional tense.
morire, to die:  morrẹi, morrẹsti, morrebbe, morrẹmmo, morrẹste, morrębbero
                                Like morire:          premorire, to die before, predecease

venire, to come:  verrẹi, verrẹsti, verrebbe, verrẹmmo, verrẹste, verrębbero
Like venire: addivenire, to come to avvenire, to happen
circonvenire, to circumvent contravenire, to contravene convenire, to convene
divenire, to become intervenire, to intervene pervenire, to reach
prevenire, to prevent riconvenire, to reconvene ridivenire, to become again
rinvenire, to rediscover, recover risoveniresi, to recollect  rivenire, to come back
sconvenire, to be unbecoming sovvenire, to help svenire, to faint