Chapter 12 - Present tense

The present tense is a complex tense in the Italian language, with many irregular forms and exceptions to general rules.
The present tense is used to describe actions which are in progress, or which are continuous. 

The English expressions such as “I speak, I am speaking, I do speak” are translated using the present tense.
To make the Italian forms, endings are added to the verb stems.

General pronunciation note:   Verbs in the present tense keep the accent on the stem of the verb
The stress falls on the last vowel of the stem, except for the “noi” and “voi” forms which ALWAYS follow the usual rules. 

Verb forms in the present tense are usually written without accent marks, but in this text, accent marks will be used when the pronunciation departs from the regular rules.

Pronunciation of Group 1 verbs
Rule 1 - With nine exceptions, verbs which have a double consonant before the group ending -are have standard pronunciation.
          examples:        

allungare  to lengthen   allungo  allunga  allunghiamo  allungate  allụngano
eclissare  to eclipse   eclisso  eclissa  eclissiamo  eclissate  eclịssano
incantare  to enchant   incanto  incanta  incantiamo  incantate  incạntano
offuscare  to obscure   offusco  offusca  offuschiamo  offuscate  offụscano
ritornare  to return   ritorno ritorna  ritorniamo  ritornate  ritọrnano

The exceptions are        

arbitrare, to arbitrate (ạrbitro) calibrare, to calibrate (cạlibro) celebrare, to celebrate (cẹlebro)
compenetrare, to permeate (compẹnetro) elucubrare, to scheme, (elụcubro) disintegrare, to disintegrate (disịntegro)
integrare, to integrate ( ịntegro) penetrare, to penetrate (pẹnetro) reintegrare, to reintegrate (reịntegro)

Rule 2 - With one exception (the verb purificare), verbs which end in -icare are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem.

beneficare (to do good)  benẹfico  benẹfichi  benẹfica  benefichiamo  beneficate  benẹficano 
esplicare (to explain)  ẹsplico  ẹsplichi  ẹsplica  esplichiamo  esplicate  ẹsplicano 
fabbricare (to fabricate)  fạbbrico  fạbbrichi  fạbbrica  fabbrichiamo  fabbricate  fạbbricano 
masticare (to chew)  mạstico  mạstichi  mạstica  mastichiamo  masticate  mạsticano 
significare (to signify  signịfico  signịfichi  signịfica  significhiamo  significate  signịficano

Rule 3 - Verbs which end in -iare find the stress on the vowel which precedes the letter “i”.
          examples:

alleviare  to alleviate  allẹvio  allevi  allevia  alleviamo  allevate  allẹviano
affacciare  to show  affạccio  affacci  affạccia  affacciamo  affacciate  affạcciano
alloggiare  to lodge  allǫggio  allǫggi  allǫggia  alloggiamo  alloggiate  allǫggiano

Rule 4. - Verbs that end in -quiare (only 3) do not double the “i” when an ending begins with “i”
The three verbs are colloquiare(to speak colloquially), ossequiare(to pay homage), and sproloquiare(to carry on, rant)

Rule 5 - Many of the group 1 verbs which have a single vowel followed by a single consonant before the group ending have regular pronunciation, that is they are stressed on the last vowel of the stem. 

In the following example, the stem is underlined.  bastonare (to cane): bastno, bastni, bastna, bastoniamo, bastonate, bastnano.

However, approximately 45% of group 1 verbs of this type are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem.            

acclimatare (to acclimate)  acclịmato  acclịmati  acclịmata  acclimatiamo  acclimate  acclịmatano
esonerare (to exonerate)  esǫnero  esǫneri  esǫnera  esoneriamo  esonerate  esǫnerano 
manipolare (to manipulate)  manịpolo  manịpoli  manịpola  manipoliamo  manipolate  manịpolano 
ondulare (to undulate)  ǫndulo  ǫnduli  ǫndula  onduliamo  ondulate  ǫndulano 
ventilare (to ventilate)  vẹntilo  vẹntili  vẹntila  ventiliamo  ventilate  vẹntilano 


All the verbs of this type are listed in the appendix.

Group 1 verbs end in -are.  The model for this group is the verb parlare, to speak; its stem is parl-.
The endings are shown in italics, and they are the same for all regular verbs in this group

I speak Io parl + o parlo (pAHr-loh)
You speak Tu parl + i parli (pAHr-lee)
He, she, who speaks Lei, Lui, Chi parl + a parla (pAHr-lah)
We speak Noi parl + iamo parliamo (pahr-lyAH-moh)
You speak Voi parl + ate parlate (pahr-lAH-tay)
They, who speak Loro, Chi pạrl + ano pạrlano (pAHr-lah-noh)

In group 1, the following verbs are irregular in the present tense
accecare, to blind:  accieco, acciechi, accieca, accechiamo, accecate, acciẹcano
andare, to go:  vado, vai, va, andiamo, andate, vanno
                Like andare:         riandare, to go back
arenare, to run aground:  arẹno, arẹni, arẹna, areniamo, arenate, arẹnano
dare, to give:  do, dai, dạ, diamo, date, danno
esaminare, to examine:  esạmino, esạmini, esạmina, esaminiamo, esaminate, esạminano
                                These verbs are irregular because, although the infinitives are pronounced regularly, the
                                accent is changed in the stem (esamin-) from the last vowel to the second to last vowel.  Using
                                esaminare as an example, the infinitive is pronounced ay-zah-mee-nAH-ray.  Thus, under the
                                regular rule, the io form would be pronounced ay-zah-mEEn-oh, but it is actually pronounced
                                ay-zAH-mee-noh.  There are too many of these verbs to be listed here. Please consult the
                                appendix for information.

fare, to do, make:  faccio, fai, fa, facciamo, fate, fanno
Like fare: assuefare, to accustom, inure contraffare, to counterfeit disassuefare, to give up a habit
disfare, to undo liquefare, to liquify putrefare, to putrify
rarefare, to rarefy rifare, to do over, repeat sfare, to undo, to thaw, melt
soddisfare, to satisfy soprafare, to overwhelm strafare, to do too much, overdo
stupefare, to stupefy torrefare, to roast tumefare, to swell

ridare, to give back:  ridò, ridai, ridà, ridiamo, ridate, ridanno
ristare, to stop, desist:  ristò, ristai, ristà, ristiamo, ristate, ristanno
sonare, to sound, to play:  suono, suoni, suona, soniamo, sonate,suǫnono
                Like sonare:                   dissonare, to be dissonant                 risonare, to resound, to play again
                rotare, to rotate            tonare, to thunder
stare, to stand:  sto, stai, sta, stiamo, state, stanno

Pronunciation of Group 2 verbs
The pronunciation of group 2 verbs is more regular than group 1 verbs.  Verbs in the present tense keep the accent on the last vowel of the stem, except for the “noi” and “voi” forms, which ALWAYS follow the usual rules.  In the loro form, the accent falls on the third to last vowel.  Verb forms are generally written without accent marks, but in this text, accent marks will be used whenever the pronunciation departs from the regular rules.

Group 2 verbs end in -ere or -rre.  The model for this group is the verb credere, to believe; its stem is cred-.  The endings are shown in italics, and they are the same for all regular verbs in this group.

I believe Io cred + o credo (crEH-doh)
You believe Tu cred + i credi (crEH-dee)
He, she, who believes Lei, Lui, Chi cred + e crede (crEH-day)
We believe Noi cred + iamo crediamo (cray-dyAH-moh)
You believe Voi cred + ẹte  credẹte (cray-dAY-tay)
They, who believe Loro, Chi crẹd + ono crędono (crEH-doh-noh)

In group 2, the following verbs are irregular in the present tense

fare, to do, make:  faccio, fai, fa, facciamo, fate, fanno
Like addure: condurre, to conduct, to lead dedurre, to deduce
indurre, to induce introdurre, to introduce produrre, to produce
reintrodurre, to reintroduce ricondurre, to bring back ridurre, to reduce
riprodurre, to reproduce sedurre, to seduce tradurre, to translate

astrarre,to abstract:  astraggo, astrai, astrae, astraiamo, astraẹte, astrạggano
Like astrarre: attrarre, to attract contrarre, to contract
decontrarre, to relax detrarre, to detract distrarre, to distract
estrarre, to extract protrarre, to protract ricontrarre, to contract again
ritrarre, to retract sottrarre, to subtract trarre, to pull, draw toward

avere, to have:  hò, hai, ha, abbiamo, avẹte, hanno

cǫgliere, to gather:  colgo, cogli, coglie, cogliamo, cogliẹte, cǫlgono
Like cǫgliere: accǫgliere, to welcome disciǫgliere, to dissolve
distǫgliere, to withdraw equivalere, to be equivalent invalere, to catch on, become fashionable
prevalere, to prevail riaccǫgliere, to readmit someone ritǫgliere, to take away again
scẹgliere, to choose sciǫgliere, to untie, to loosen tǫgliere, to take away
valere, to be worth


conoscere, to know:  conọsco, conọsci, conọsce, conosciamo, conoscẹte, conọscono
                Like conoscere:                                    disconoscere, to disclaim                   riconoscere, to recognize
crẹscere, to grow:  crẹsco, crẹsci, crẹsce, cresciamo, crescẹte, crẹscono
                Like crescere:                                      nạscere, to be born                              ricrẹscere, to regrow
                rinạscere, to be reborn                       rincrẹscere, to regret
cuǫcere, to cook:  cuocio, cuoci, cuoce, cociamo, cocẹte, cuǫciono
                Like cuǫcere:                                        ricuǫcere, to recook                            scuǫcere, to overcook
                stracuǫcere, to overdo
divẹllere, to uproot:  divelgo, divelli, divelle, divelliamo, divellẹte, divẹlgono
                Like divẹllere:                                     eccẹllere, to excel                                espẹllere, to expel
                repẹllere, to repel                              svẹllere, to tear out
dolere, to suffer, ache:  dǫlgo, duǫli, duǫle, dogliamo, dolẹte, dǫlgono
dovere, to be obliged to:  devo, devi, deve, dobbiamo, dovẹte, dẹvono

These verbs are irregular because the soft g of the infinitive is hard in the “I” and “they”forms.
emẹrgere, to emerge:  emergo, emergi, emerge, emergiamo, emergẹte, emẹrgono
Like emẹrgere: accǫrgere, to perceive aggiụngere, to add
aspẹrgere, to sprinkle attịngere, to attain cịngere, to surround
congiụngere, to join, unite cospạrgere, to scatter, sprinkle costrịngere, to compel
convẹrgere, to converge dipịngere, to depict dirịgere, to direct
disgiụngere, to disjoin, separate disụngere, to degrease divẹrgere, to diverge
emụlgere, to soften ẹrgere, to raise, lift up erịgere, to erect
esịgere, to demand espụngere, to expunge fịngere, to feign, pretend
frạngere, to break fụngere, to act as someone giụngere, to join
immẹrgere, to immerge indụlgere, to indulge ingiụngere, to enjoin, to order
interpụngere, to punctuate mụngere, to milk neglịgere, to neglect
piạngere, to cry, weep pịngere, to paint pǫrgere, to hand something to someone
predilịgere, to be particularly fond of something pụngere, to prick, sting, bite, nip
raggiụngere, to catch up, up to, up with redịgere, to draw up, draft
ricongiụngere, to reconnect riemẹrgere, to re-emerge rifrạngere, to refract
rifụlgere, to shine rimpiạngere, to regret rinvǫlgere, to rewrap
ripịngere, to repaint risǫrgere, to rise again risospịngere, to push again
ritịngere, to redye sconvǫlgere, to upset, throw into confusion
scǫrgere, to make out, distinguish smụngere, to bleed, milk, squeeze soggiụngere, to add
sommẹrgere, to submerge sopragiụngere, to appear or arrive suddenly
sǫrgere, to rise, get up spạrgere, to scatter, strew spịngere, to push, shove
spǫrgere, to stick out, protrude stịngere, to fade, lose color strịngere, to clasp, hold tightly
svǫlgere, to unwind tẹrgere, to wipe clean, away tịngere, to dye, tint
vǫlgere, to wrap ụngere, to oil, lubricate

ęssere, to be:  sọno, sei, è, siamo, siete, sọno
                                Like essere:       rięssere, to be again

giacere, to lie down:  giaccio, giaci, giace, giacciamo, giacẹte, giạcciono
Like giacere: dispiacere, to displease piacere, to please
scompiacere, to be unkind soggiacere, to be subject to spiacere, to be sorry, to regret
tacere, to be silent

These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in the “I”and “they” forms.
lęggere, to read:  leggo, leggi, legge, leggiamo, leggẹte, lẹggono
Like lęggere: affịggere, to affix afflịggere, to afflict
corrẹggere, to correct distrụggere, to destroy elęggere, to elect
figgere, to fix, stick frịggere, to fry infịggere, to drive, thrust
inflịggere, to inflict prefịggere, to arrange in advance protẹggere, to protect
rẹggere, to hold rielęggere, to re-elect rifrịggere, to refry
rilęggere, to read again sconfịggere, to defeat, vanquish strụggere, to melt, thaw
trafịggere, to transfigure

muǫvere, to move:  muovo, muovi, muove, moviamo, movẹte, muǫvono
Like muǫvere commuǫvere, to move emotionally muǫvere, to move
nuǫcere, to harm percuǫtere, to strike promuǫvere, to promote
ricuǫcere, to recook rimuǫvere, to remove riscuǫtere, to draw a salary
scuǫcere, to overcook scuǫtere, to shake smuǫvere, to budge
sommuǫvere, to incite, stir up stracuǫcere, to overdo

nuǫcere, to harm:  noccio, nuoci, nuoce, nociamo, nocẹte, nǫcciono
parere, to seem:  paio, pari, pare, pariamo, parẹte, pạiono


pọrre, to put, place:  pọngo, pọni, pọne, poniamo, ponẹte, pọngono
Like pọrre: antepọrre, to place or put before appọrre, to append
compọrre, to compose contrappọrre, to contrast contropropọrre, to counterpropose
decompọrre, to decompose depọrre, to put, set, lay down dispọrre, to dispose
espọrre, to expose fotocompọrre, to photocompose frappọrre, to interpose
giustappọrre, to juxtapose impọrre, to impose indispọrre, to irritate; to annoy
interpọrre, to interpose oppọrre, to oppose pospọrre, to postpone
predispọrre, to predispose prepọrre, to place before presuppọrre, to presuppose
propọrre, to propose ricompọrre, to recompose ridispọrre, to rearrange
riespọrre, to expound again ripọrre, to replace ripropọrre, to repropose
scompọrre, to take apart, dismantle sottoespọrre, to underexpose sottopọrre, to place underneath
sovraespọrre, to overexpose sovrappọrre, to superimpose sovrimpọrre, to overlay
suppọrre, to suppose traspọrre, to transpose

potere, to be able, can:  pǫsso, puǫi, può, possiamo, potẹte, pǫssono
riavere, to have again, recover:  riò, riai, rià, riabbiamo, riavẹte, rianno
rimanere, to remain:  rimango, rimani, rimane, rimaniamo, rimanẹte, rimạngono
sapere, to know:  sò, sai , sa, sappiamo, sapẹte, sanno
sedere, to sit:  siẹdo, siẹdi, siẹde, sediamo, sedẹte, siẹdono
                                Like sedere:                          possedere, to possess          risedere, to reseat, to sit down again
solere, to be in the habit of:  sǫglio, suǫli, suǫle, sogliamo, solẹte, sǫgliono
                Like solere:                                                                           volere, to want
spẹgnere, to extinguish:  spengo, spegni, spegne, spegniamo, spegnẹte, spẹngono

tenere, to hold:  tengo, tieni, tiene, teniamo, tenẹte, tẹngono
Like tenere: appartenere, to belong to contenere, to contain
detenere, to detain mantenere, to maintain ottenere, to obtain
ritenere, to retain sostenere, to sustain trattenere, to restrain

These verbs are irregular because the soft c of the infinitive is hard in the “I”and “they” forms.
tǫrcere, to twist:  torco, torci, torce, torciamo, torcẹte, tǫrcono
Like torcere: contǫrcere, to contort contǫrcersi, to writhe
distǫrcere, to distort ritǫrcere, to twist again

trarre, to draw:  traggo, trai, trae, traiamo, traẹte, trạggono
Like trarre: attrarre, to attract astrarre, to abstract
contrarre, to contract detrarre, to detract distrarre, to distract
estrarre, to extract protrarre, to protract ritrarre, to retract
sottrarre, to subtract

These verbs are irregular because the soft c of the infinitive is hard in the “I”and “they” forms.
vịncere, to win:  vinco, vinci, vince, vinciamo, vincẹte, vịncono
Like vincere: avvịncere, to charm convịncere, to convince
convịncersi, to convince oneself evincere, to be evident stravincere, to win overwhelmingly, trounce

volẹre, to want:  vǫglio, vuǫli, vuǫle, vogliamo, volẹte, vǫgliono
                Like volere:                                           benvolere, to like someone         disvolere, to stop liking someone
                malvolere, to dislike someone               rivolere, to want someone or something back

Pronunciation of Group 3 verbs
The pronunciation of group 3 verbs is generally regular.  Verb forms are usually written without accent marks, but, in this text, accent marks will be used whenever the pronunciation departs from the regular rules.

In some texts, the authors divide this verb group into two parts, namely those verbs whose forms are like finire, and those whose forms are like partire.

Due to the fact that this group has 665 verbs of which 95 are formed like partire, this author treats the verbs like partire as irregular verbs.

Group 3 verbs end in -ire.  The model for this group is the verb finire, to finish or end; its stem is fin-.  The endings are shown in italics, and they are the same for all regular verbs in this group.            

I finish Io fin + isco finisco (fee-nEE-scoh)
You finish Tu fin + isci finisci (fee-nEE-shee)
He, she, who finishes Lei, Lui, Chi fin + isce finsce (fee-nEE-shay)
We finish Noi fin + iamo finiamo (fee-nyAH-moh)
You finish Voi fin + ite finite (fee-nEE-tay)
They, who finish Loro, Chi fin + ịscono finịscono (fee-nEE-scoh-noh)

In group 3, the following verbs are irregular in the present tense.
aprire, to open:  apro, apri, apre, apriamo, aprite, ạprono
Like aprire: assentire, to assent avvertire, to advise, inform
bollire, to boil conseguire, to obtain consentire, to consent
convertire, to convert coprire, to cover discoprire, to discover
disinvestire, to disinvest dissentire, to dissent divertire, to amuse
dormire, to sleep offrire, to offer eseguire, to execute
inseguire, to chase after invertire, to invert investire, to invest
partire, to start pentire, to repent perseguire, to pursue
pervertire, to pervert preavvertire, to forewarn presentire, to present
proseguire, to prosecute reinvestire, to reinvest riaprire, to reopen
riavvertire, to advise again ribollire, to reboil riconvertire, to reconvert
ricoprire, to cover again riscoprire, to rediscover rieseguire, to execute again
risentire, to hear again rivestire, to dress again sbollire, to cool off
scoprire, to discover, uncover seguire, to follow sentire, to feel
servire, to serve sobbollire, to simmer soffrire, to suffer
sortire, to go out sovvertire, to subvert susseguire, to follow, succeed
svestire, to undress vestire, to dress vestirsi, to dress oneself

These verbs are characterized by the presence of a double consonant or the letter pair "gu" before the group ending.

cucire, to sew:  cucio, cuci, cuce, cuciamo, cucite, cụciono
                Like cucire:      ricucire, to sew again             scucire, to unravel
fuggire, to flee, to escape:  fuggo, fuggi, fugge, fuggiamo, fuggite, fụggono
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in the “I”and “they” forms.]
                Like fuggire:                      muggire, to moo          rifuggire, to flee again, escape again
                ruggire, to roar, bellow    sfuggire, to shun, avoid

dire, to say:  dico, dici, dice, diciamo, dite, dịcono
Like dire: benedire, to bless contraddire, to contradict
disdire, to retract interdire, to interdict, prohibit maledire, to curse
predire, to predict ridire, to repeat ribenedire, to bless again

empire, to fill, fill up, fill in:  empio, empi, empe, empiamo, empite, empịrono
                                Like empire:       riempire, to refill
morire, to die:  muoio, muori, muore, moriamo, morite, muoịono
                                Like morire:       premorire, to die before, predecease
salire, to go forth, go up, climb:  salgo, sali, sale, saliamo, salite, sạlgono
                                Like salire:          assalire, to assault             risalire, to go up again
udire, to hear:  odo, odi, ode, udiamo, udite, ǫdono
                                Like udire:         riudire, to hear again
uscire, to go out:  esco, esci, esce, usciamo, uscite, ẹscono
                                Like uscire:       fuoriuscire, to come out, leak         riuscire, to go out again

venire, to come;  vẹngo, viẹni, viẹne, veniamo, venite, vẹngono
Like venire: addivenire, to come to avvenire, to happen
circonvenire, to circumvent contravenire, to contravene convenire, to convene
divenire, to become intervenire, to intervene pervenire, to reach
prevenire, to prevent riconvenire, to reconvene ridivenire, to become again
rinvenire, to rediscover, recover risoveniresi, to recollect  rivenire, to come back
sconvenire, to be unbecoming sovvenire, to help svenire, to faint