Chapter 14 - Expressing Uncertainty - Giving Orders

In the Italian language, when the primary idea of a sentence is an expression of uncertainty, denial, impersonal condition, a request or a command to do something, any secondary idea will require a special verb form.  Here are some examples.
            It is possible that it will rain today.
This sentence has two parts.  First, there is an expression of uncertainty (“It is possible..”).  Then, there is a secondary idea, namely that it might rain.
            I doubt that John will arrive on time.
There are two parts to the sentence.  First there is an expression of doubt, which is the primary idea.  Then, there is the secondary idea, namely what is doubted.
            The court ordered that he pay the fine.
Again, we have two ideas.  First, that a court issued an order, and second what the order was.
            In case of fire, break the glass.
This statement refers to a command to do something when a certain condition exists.
            I hope that our team will win this game.
This sentence is a statement of personal desire.
            The law requires that each person pay taxes.
This sentence describes an impersonal condition, namely a legal requirement.

In English, we depend on several methods to express these ideas, but in Italian, a special verb is required in the second part of such a sentence.  This special verb is called the subjunctive, and is required more often in Italian than in English.  The English translation might take one of several forms, but, generally, the present or future tense will be used.

Here are some examples of its use.
            I hope that John arrives on time.                     Io spero che Giovanni arrivi in punto.
            It is necessary that you study.                                    Bisogna che voi studiate.
            The law requires that you pay taxes.               La lẹgge richiede che tu paghi imposte
            In case of fire, break the glass.                       In caso di fuoco, rompa il vetro.
            It is possible that they will win the game.      Ẹ possibile che loro vịncano la partita.
            We hope they know the address.                    Noi speriamo che loro sappiano l’indirizzo.
            She wants you to make dinner.                       Lei vuò che tu prepari il pranzo.

Giving orders

These same verb forms are used to give orders, and are referred to as formal commands.  Some examples follow.                        Please, order the wine.                        Per favore, ordiniil vino.
                        Turn left at the bridge.                        Vada a sinistra al ponte.
                        Do it right away.                                 Lo facciasụbito.

Group 1 verbs end in -are, example: mandare, to send.  The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the io form of the present tense with the endings -i, -i, -i, -iamo, -iate, -ino.
                               I                io                     mand + i         mandi              (mAHn-dee)
                            you              tu                     mand + i         mandi              (mAHn-dee)
                   he, she, it              lei, lui              mand + i         mandi              (mAHn-dee)
                              we             noi                   mand + iamo  mandiamo       (mahn-dyAH-moh)
                            you              voi                   mand + iate     mandiate         (mahn-dyAH-tay)
                            they             loro                  mạnd + ino     mạndino          (mAHn-dee-noh)
Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will also appear in these forms.

In group 1, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense
accecare, to blind:  acciẹchi, acciẹchi, acciẹchi, accechiamo, accechiate, acciẹchino
andare, to go:  vada, vada, vada, andiamo, andiate, vạdano
                Like andare:         riandare, to go back
arenare, to run aground:  arẹni, arẹni, arẹni, areniamo, areniate, arẹnino
avviare, to set in motion:  avvìi, avvìi, avvìi, avviamo, avviate, avvìino
dare, to give:  dịa, dịa, dịa, diamo, diate, dịano
esaminare, to examine:  esạmini, esạmini, esạmini, esaminiamo, esaminiate, esạminino
These verbs are irregular because, although the infinitives are pronounced regularly, the accent is changed in the stem (esamin-) from the last vowel to the second to last vowel.  Using esaminare as an example, the infinitive is pronounced ay-zah-mee-nAH-ray.  Thus, under the regular rule, the io form would be pronounced ay-zah-mEE-nee, but it is actually pronounced ay-zAH-mee-nee.  There are too many of these verbs to be listed here. Please consult the appendix.
fare, to do, make:  faccia, faccia, faccia, facciamo, facciate, fạcciano
                Like fare:
                assuefare, to accustom, inure           contraffare, to counterfeit                 disassuefare, to give up a habit
                disfare, to undo                                   liquefare, to liquify                             putrefare, to putrify
                rarefare, to rarefy                               rifare, to do over, repeat                    sfare, to undo, to thaw, melt
                soddisfare, to satisfy                          soprafare, to overwhelm                    strafare, to do too much, overdo
                stupefare, to stupefy                           torrefare, to roast                                tumefare, to swell
ridare, to give back:  ridịa, ridịa, ridịa, ridiamo, ridiate, ridịano
ristare, to stop, desist:  ristịa, ristịa, ristịa, ristiamo, ristiate, ristịano
sonare, to sound, to play:  suǫni, suǫni, suǫni, soniamo, soniate,suǫnino
                Like sonare:                                          dissonare, to be dissonant                 risonare, to resound, to play again
                rotare, to rotate                                   tonare, to thunder
stare, to stand:  stịa, stịa, stịa, stiamo, stiate, stịano

Group 2 verbs end in -ere or -rre, examples: presụmere, to presume.  The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the ioform of the present tense with the endings -a, -a, -a, -iamo, -iate, -ano.
                               I                io         presum + a                  presuma          (pray-zOO-mah)
                            you              tu         presum + a                  presuma          (pray-zOO-mah)
                   he, she, it              lei, lui  presum + a                  presuma          (pray-zOO-mah)
                              we             noi       presum + iamo            presumiamo    (pray-zoo-myAH-moh)
                            you              voi       presum + iate              presumiate       (pray-zoo-myAH-tay)
                            they             loro      presùm + ano              presùmano      (pray-zOO-mah-noh)

Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will also appear in these forms.

In group 2, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense
addurre, to adduce:  adduca, adduca, adduca, adduciamo, adduciate, addùcano
                Like addurre:                                        circondurre, to lead around              condurre, to conduct
                dedurre, to deduce                              indurre, to induce                                                introdurre, to introduce
                produrre, to produce                          reintrodurre, to reintroduce                ricondurre, to bring, take again
                ridurre, to reduce                                                riprodurre, to reproduce                    ritradurre, to retranslate
                sedurre, to seduce                               tradurre, to translate                            trasdurre, to transduce
astrarre,to abstract:  astragga, astragga, astragga, astraiamo, astraiate, astrạggano
                Like astrarre:                                                        attrarre, to attract                                               contrarre, to contract
                decontrarre, to relax                                           detrarre, to detract                              distrarre, to distract
                estrarre, to extract                                              protrarre, to protract                          ricontrarre, to contract again
                ritrarre, to retract                                                                sottrarre, to subtract                           trarre, to pull, draw toward
avere, to have:  ạbbia, ạbbia, ạbbia, abbiamo, abbiate, ạbbiano
cǫgliere, to gather:  colga, colga, colga, cogliamo, cogliate, cǫlgano
                Like cǫgliere:                                        accǫgliere, to welcome                      devǫlvere, to assign
                disciǫgliere, to dissolve                     distǫgliere, to withdraw                     equivalere, to be equivalent
                invalere, to catch on, become fashionable                                                    prevalere, to be prevalent, to prevail
                riaccǫgliere, to readmit someone    ritǫgliere, to take away again          scẹgliere, to choose
                sciǫgliere, to untie, to loosen            tǫgliere, to take away                        valere, to be worth
conoscere, to know:  conọsca, conọsca, conọsca, conosciamo, conosciate, conọscano
                Like conoscere:                                    disconoscere, to disclaim                   riconoscere, to recognize
crẹscere, to grow:  crẹsca, crẹsca, crẹsca, cresciamo, cresciate, crẹscano
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft sc of the stem is hard in four of six forms.]
                Like crescere:                                       nạscere, to be born                              ricrẹscere, to regrow
                rinạscere, to be reborn                       rincrẹscere, to regret
cuǫcere, to cook:  cuocia, cuocia, cuocia, cociamo, cociate, cuǫciano
                Like cuǫcere:                                        ricuǫcere, to recook                            scuǫcere, to overcook
divẹllere, to uproot:  divelga, divelga, divelga, divelliamo, divelliate, divẹlgano
                Like divẹllere:                                     eccẹllere, to excel                                espẹllere, to expel
                repẹllere, to repel                                svẹllere, to tear out
dolere, to suffer, ache:  dǫlga, dǫlga, dǫlga, dogliamo, doliate, dǫlgano
dovere, to be obliged to:  deva, deva, deva, dobbiamo, dobbiate, dẹvano
emẹrgere, to emerge:  emerga, emerga, emerga, emergiamo, emergiate, emẹrgano
                Like emẹrgere:                                     accǫrgere, to perceive                        aggiùngere, to add
                aspẹrgere, to sprinkle                         attịngere, to attain                              cịngere, to surround
                congiùngere, to join, unite                                cospạrgere, to scatter, sprinkle         costrịngere, to compel
                convẹrgere, to converge                     dipịngere, to depict                             dirịgere, to direct
                disgiùngere, to disjoin, separate      disùngere, to degrease                        divẹrgere, to diverge
                emùlgere, to soften                             ẹrgere, to raise, lift up                         erịgere, to erect
                espùngere, to expunge                       esịgere, to demand                             fịngere, to feign, pretend
                frạngere, to break                                               fùngere, to act as someone                               giùngere, to join
                immẹrgere, to immerge                       indùlgere, to indulge                           ingiùngere, to enjoin, to order
                interpùngere, to punctuate                               mùngere, to milk                                  neglịgere, to neglect
                piạngere, to cry, weep                        pịngere, to paint                                  pǫrgere, to hand something to someone
                predilịgere, to be fond of s.t.            pùngere, to prick, sting                       raggiùngere, to catch up, up to, up with
                redịgere, to draw up, draft                                ricongiùngere, to reconnect              riemẹrgere, to re-emerge
                rifrạngere, to refract                           rifùlgere, to shine                                                rimpiạngere, to regret
                rinvǫlgere, to rewrap                          ripịngere, to repaint                            ritịngere, to redye
                risǫrgere, to rise again                        risospịngere, to push again               scǫrgere, to make out, distinguish
                sconvǫlgere, to upset                          smùngere, to bleed, milk, squeeze    soggiùngere, to add
                sommẹrgere, to submerge                  sopragiùngere, to appear  suddenly                sǫrgere, to rise, get up
                spạrgere, to scatter, strew                  spịngere, to push, shove                    spǫrgere, to stick out, protrude
                stịngere, to fade, lose color               strịngere, to clasp, hold tightly         svǫlgere, to unwind
                tẹrgere, to wipe clean, away             tịngere, to dye, tint                              vǫlgere, to wrap
                ùngere, to oil, lubricate
ęssere, to be:  sịa, sịa, sịa, siamo, siate, sịano
                Like essere:                                                                           riessere, to be again
giacere, to lie down:  giaccia, giaccia, giaccia, giacciamo, giacciate, giạcciano
                Like giacere:                                         dispiacere, to displease                      piacere, to please
                scompiacere, to be unkind                 soggiacere, to be subject to              spiacere, to be sorry, to regret
                tacere, to be silent
lęggere, to read:  legga, legga, legga, leggiamo, leggiate, lẹggano
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in four of the six forms.]
                Like lęggere:                                         affịggere, to affix                                               afflịggere, to afflict
                corrẹggere, to correct                         distrùggere, to destroy                       elęggere, to elect
                figgere, to fix, stick                             frịggere, to fry                                     infịggere, to drive, thrust
                inflịggere, to inflict                             prefịggere, to arrange in advance    protẹggere, to protect
                rẹggere, to hold                                   rielęggere, to re-elect                          rifrịggere, torefry
                rilęggere, to read again                      sconfịggere, to defeat, vanquish      strùggere, to melt, thaw
                trafịggere, to transfigure
muǫvere, to move:  muova, muova, muova, moviamo, moviate, muǫvano
                Like muovere:                                      commuǫvere, to move emotionally  perscuǫtere, to strike
                promuǫvere, to promote                    rimuǫvere, to remove                         riscuǫtere, to collect or draw a salary
                scuǫtere, to shake                                               smuǫvere, to budge                             sommuǫvere, to incite, stir up
nuǫcere, to harm:  noccia, noccia, noccia, nociamo, nociate, nǫcciano
parere, to seem:  paia, paia, paia, pariamo, pariate, pạiano
pọrre, to put, place:  pọnga, pọnga, pọnga, poniamo, poniate, pọngano
                Like pọrre:                                            antepọrre, to place or put before     appọrre, to append
                compọrre, to compose                        contrappọrre, to oppose; to contrast;
                contropropọrre, to counteroffer      decompọrre, to decompose               depọrre, to put, set, lay down
                dispọrre, to dispose                             espọrre, to expose                               fotocompọrre, to photocompose
                frappọrre, to interpose                       giustappọrre, to juxtapose                                impọrre, to impose
                indispọrre, to irritate; to annoy        interpọrre, to interpose                      oppọrre, to oppose
                pospọrre, to postpone                        predispọrre, to predispose                 prepọrre, to place before, to set above
                presuppọrre, to presuppose               propọrre, to propose                           ricompọrre, to reassemble, to recompose
                ridispọrre, to rearrange                      riespọrre, to exhibit again                 ripọrre, to replace
                ripropọrre, to repropose                    scompọrre, to take apart                    sottoespọrre, to underexpose
                sottopọrre, to subdue                         sovraespọrre, to overexpose             sovrappọrre, to superimpose
                sovrimpọrre, to overlay                      suppọrre, to suppose                          traspọrre, to transpose
potere, to be able, can:  possa, possa, possa, possiamo, possiate, pǫssano
riavere, to have again, recover:  riạbbia, riạbbia, riạbbia, riabbiamo, riabbiate, riạbbiano
rimanere, to remain:  rimanga, rimanga, rimanga, rimaniamo, rimaniate, rimạngano
sapere, to know:  sappia, sappia , sappia, sappiamo, sapiate, sạppiano
sedere, to sit:  siẹda, siẹda, siẹda, sediamo, sediate, siẹdano
                Like sedere:                                          possedere, to possess                          risedere, to reseat, to sit down again
solere, to be in the habit of:  soglia, soglia, soglia, sogliamo, sogliate, sǫgliano
                Like solere:                                                                           volere, to want
spẹgnere, to extinguish:  spenga, spenga, spenga,, spegniamo, spegniate, spẹngano
tenere, to hold:  tenga, tenga, tenga, teniamo, teniate, tẹngano
                Like tenere:                                           appartenere, to belong to                  contenere, to contain
                detenere, to detain                              mantenere, to maintain                      ottenere, to obtain
                ritenere, to retain                                 sostenere, to sustain                            trattenere, to restrain
tǫrcere, to twist:  torca, torca, torca, torciamo, torciate, tǫrcano
                Like torcere:                                         contǫrcere, to contort                         contǫrcersi, to writhe
                distǫrcere, to distort                            ritǫrcere, to twist again
trarre, to draw:  tragga, tragga, tragga, traiamo, traiate, trạggano
                Like trarre:                                            attrarre, to attract                                               astrarre, to abstract
                contrarre, to contract                         detrarre, to detract                              distrarre, to distract
                estrarre, to extract                              protrarre, to protract                          ritrarre, to retract
                sottrarre, to subtract
vịncere, to win:  vinca, vinca, vinca, vinciamo, vinciate, vịncano
                Like vincere:                                         avvịncere, to charm                            convịncere, to convince
                convịncersi, to convince oneself      evincere, to be evident                       stravincere, to win overwhelmingly, trounce
volere, to want:  voglia, voglia, voglia, vogliamo, vogliate, vǫgliano
                Like volere:                                           benvolere, to like someone                                disvolere, to stop liking someone
                malvolere, to dislike someone           rivolere, to want someone or something back

Group3 verbs end in -ire. example: finire, to finish.  The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the ioform of the present tense with the endings -a, -a, -a, -iamo, -iate, -ano.
                               I                io                     finisc + a         finisca              (fee-nEE-scah)
                            you              tu                     finisc + a         finisca              (fee-nEE-scah)
                   he, she, it              lei, lui              finisc + a         finisca              (fee-nEE-scah)
                           we                noi                   fin + iamo       finiamo            (fee-nyAH-mo)
                            you              voi                   fin + iate          finiate              (fee-nyAH-tay)
                            they             loro                  finịsc + ano     finịscano          (fee-nEE-scah-noh)

Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will appear in these forms.

In group 3, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense
aprire, to open:  apra, apra, apra, apriamo, apriate, ạprano
                Like aprire:                                                           assentire, to assent                              avvertire, to advise, inform
                bollire, to boil                                                      conseguire, to obtain                          consentire, to consent
                convertire, to convert                                         coprire, to cover                                  discoprire, to discover
                disinvestire, to disinvest                                     dissentire, to dissent                           divertire, to amuse
                dormire, to sleep                                                  eseguire, to execute                            inseguire, to chase after
                invertire, to invert                                               investire, to invest                               partire, to start
                offrire, to offer                                                     pentire, to repent                                 perseguire, to pursue
                pervertire, to pervert                                           preavvertire, to forewarn                   presentire, to present
                proseguire, to prosecute                                    reinvestire, to reinvest                        riaprire, to reopen
                riavvertire, to advise again                                               ribollire, to reboil                                                riconvertire, to reconvert
                ricoprire, to ricover                                             riscoprire, to rediscover                     rieseguire, to execute again
                risentire, to hear again                                       rivestire, to dress again                      sbollire, to cool off
                scoprire, to discover, uncover                           seguire, to follow                                 sentire, to feel
                servire, to serve                                                    sobbollire, to simmer                         soffrire, to suffer
                sortire, to go out                                                  sovvertire, to subvert                          susseguire, to follow, succeed
                svestire, to undress                                              vestire, to dress                                    vestirsi, to dress oneself
cucire, to sew:  cucia, cucia, cucia, cuciamo, cuciate, cùciano
                Like cucire:                                                           ricucire, to sew again                         scucire, to unravel
dire, to say:  dica, dica, dica, diciamo, diciate, dịcano
                                Like dire:                                               benedire, to bless                                 contradire, to contradict
                                disdire, to retract                                 interdire, to interdict, prohibit           maledire, to curse               
                                predire, to predict                                ridire, to repeat                                    ribenedire, to bless again
empire, to fill, fill up, fill in:  empia, empia, empia, empiamo, empiate, empịrano
                Like empire:                                                         riempire, to refill
fuggire, to flee, to escape:  fugga, fugga, fugga, fuggiamo, fuggiate, fùggano
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in four of the six forms.]
                Like fuggire:                                                         muggire, to moo                                  rifuggire, to flee, escape again
                ruggire, to roar, bellow                                       sfuggire, to shun, avoid
morire, to die:  muoia, muoia, muoia, moriamo, moriate, muǫiono
                Like morire:                                                                          premorire, to die before, predecease
salire, to go forth, go up, climb:  salga, salga, salga, saliamo, saliate, sạlgano
                Like salire:                                                            assalire, to assault                              risalire, to go up again
udire, to hear:  oda, oda oda, udiamo, udiate, ǫdano
                Like udire:                                                             riudire, to hear again
uscire, to go out:  esca, esca, esca, usciamo, usciate, ẹscano
                Like uscire:                                                           fuoriuscire, to come out, leak           riuscire, to go out again
venire, to come;  venga, venga, venga, veniamo, veniate, vẹngano
                Like venire:                                                           addivenire, to come to                       avvenire, to happen
                circonvenire, to circumvent                           contravenire, to contravene              convenire, to convene
                divenire, to become                                            intervenire, to intervene                     pervenire, to reach
                prevenire, to prevent                                          riconvenire, to reconvene                  ridivenire, to become again
                rinvenire, to rediscover, recover                       risoveniresi, to recollect                     rivenire, to come back
                sconvenire, to be unbecoming                          sovvenire, to help                                                svenire, to faint