Chapter 16 - The Formation of Compound Verbs

The formation of compound verbs ( have spoken, had spoken, will have spoken, and so on) is the same as in English, namely the use an auxiliary verb (to be or to have), and the past form of the main verb.  This usage is the same as it is in English.  In common speech, the translation of these forms into English is often the simple past tense, especially when a past action relates to something happening now.

1. The forms of the verb avere(to have)

I spoke, have spoken Io  ho parlato
You spoke, have spoken Tu hai parlato
He, she, who spoke, has spoken Lei, lui, chi ha parlato
We spoke, have spoken Noi abbiamo parlato
You spoke, have spoken Voi avẹte parlato
They, chi spoke, have spoken Loro hanno parlato
I spoke, have spoken Io avẹvo parlato
You spoke, have spoken Tu avẹvi parlato
He, she, who spoke, has spoken Lei, lui, chi avẹva parlato
We spoke, have spoken Noi avevamo parlato
You spoke, have spoken Voi avevate parlato
They, chi spoke, have spoken Loro, chi avẹvano parlato
I spoke, have spoken Io avrò venduto
You spoke, have spoken Tu avrai venduto
He, she, who spoke, has spoken Lei, lui, chi avrà venduto
We spoke, have spoken Noi avrẹmo venduto
You spoke, have spoken Voi avrẹte venduto
They, chi spoke, have spoken Loro, chi avranno venduto
I spoke, have spoken Io avrẹi finito
You spoke, have spoken Tu avrẹsti finito
He, she, who spoke, has spoken Lei, lui, chi avrebbe finito
We spoke, have spoken Noi avrẹmmo finito
You spoke, have spoken Voi avrẹste finito
They, chi spoke, have spoken Loro chi avrębbero finito

Pronunciation note : The past verb forms are all stressed on the second to last vowel.

The compound forms of most verbs is made by using avere, but some compound forms are made by using ęssere.
The following is a list of those verbs.  Compound verbs (muovere :: rimuovere) also use ęssere.

accadere, to happen accagliare, to curdle accẹdere, to accede
albeggiare, to dawn ammalare, to fall ill ammatire, to become or go crazy
ammontare, to mount up, amount ammuffire, to become moldy
ammutolire, to become dumbfounded andare, to go
annegare, to drown annottare, to become night apparire, to seem, to appear
appartenere, to belong appassire, to wither, wilt appoggiare, to lean, lay, rest
approdare, to come to a decision ạrdere, to burn arenare, to run aground
arrabbiare, to become angry arrivare, to arrive arrosire, to blush
arrostire, to roast  arruginire, to rust arruvidire, to roughen
asfissiare, to become asphyxiated assommare, to amount to aumentare, to increase, augment
avanzare, to advance avvenire, to happen avvizzire, to wither
bacare, to become corrupt, bad balenare, to flash baluginare, to glimmer, blink
balzare, to bounce bạttere, to beat brinare, to frost, have frost
bruciare, to burn
cadere, to fall cagliare, to curdle calare, to fall (said of prices)
cambiare, to change capitare, to turn out, result cascare, to cascade, to fall
comparire, to appear convenire, to be convenient cọrrere, to run
costare, to cost costumare, to be the custom crẹscere, to grow
decadere, to decline decẹdere, to die, to be deceased decọrrere, to run out of time
decrẹscere, to decrease defluire, to flow out deperire, to become run down
dimagrire, to lose weight diminuire, to diminish dipẹndere, to depend
divampare, to burst into flames disconvenire, to disagree discordare, to differ in opinon
dispiacere, to displease divenire, to become diventare, to become
divertire, to divert, amuse, enjoy durare, to last, endure durire, to harden
eccẹllere, to excel emẹrgere, to emerge entrare, to enter
esịstere, to exist esplǫdere, to explode ęssere, to be
fiocare, to fall (like snow) fiorire, to flower, to bloom fuggire, to flee
garbare, to be suitable gelare, to gel, set, become solid ghiacciare, to freeze
giacere, to lie, to rest giụngere, to join
imbizzire, to get angry imbrunire, to get dark imbruttire, to grow ugly
immigrare, to immigrate impazientire, to become impatient impazzare, to become or go crazy
impietrire, to turn to stone imputridire, to become rotten inasinare, to become stupid
incallire, to become callous incanutire, to become gray haired incaparbire, to become obstinate
incappare, to stumble incarnire, to grow in  incọmbere, to be incumbent
incominciare, to begin incontrare, to meet incọrrere, to incur
incretinire, to lose one's mind incrudelire, to become cruel indebolire, to weaken
ingiallire, to become, turn yellow inscurire, to make obscure insecchire, to become dry, dry up
insọrgere, to revolt, become insurgent intervenire, to intervene intorbidire, to muddy
intristire, to wither from saddness invalere, to prevail invecchiare, to become, grow old
irrọmpere, to break, burst into
marcire, to become overripe migliorare, to improve, get better morire, to die
muffire, to be musty muǫvere, to move
nạscere, to be born naufragare, to become shipwrecked nevicare, to snow
occọrrere, to occur, to be necessary
parere, to seem partire, to leave passare, to pass by or through
peggiorare, to worsen, to get worse permanere, to be permanent pervenire, to reach, to get through
piacere, to like, to please piǫvere, to rain preesịstere, to preexist
prẹmere, to be urgent premorire, to predecease putrefare, to putrify
rabbrividire, to shudder, shiver radoppiare, to double one’s efforts regredire, to regress
restare, to have left riandare, to go back ricadere, to relapse, fall again
riapparire, to reappear ricadere, to fall back, relapse ricominciare, to recommence
ricomparire, to reappear ricrẹscere, to regrow ridivenire, to become again
riemẹrgere, to reemerge rientrare, to reenter rięssere, to become again
rimanere, to remain rimbambire, to become feeble minded by age
rinạscere, to be reborn rincitrullire, to become stupid rincrẹscere, to regret
rincrudire, to get worse rindurire, to reharden risavire, to come to one’s senses
rinsecchire, to dry up again rinvenire, to revive riparare, to take refuge
ripartire, to leave again risultare, to result riuscire, to succeed
salire, to leave sbalzare, to spring, to leap sbucare, to pop out
scadere, to fall or become due scappare, to escape scivolare, to slip
scomparire, to disappear sconvenire, to be unbecoming scopiare, to burst
scẹndere, to descend sedere, to sit sembrare, to seem
sfuggire, to run away sfumare, to merge into smagrire, to become thin
soggiacere, to subject, be subject solere, to be in the habit of sopravvịvere, to survive
sǫrgere, to rise sottostare, to be under someone in rank
sovvenire, to help sparire, to disappear spegnere, to put out
spettare, to be due, to owe spiacere, to be sorry spiǫvere, to stop raining
spirare, to expire spǫrgere, to protrude spronfọndere, to throw down
stare, to be stillare, to ooze, trickle stịngere, to remove color, to fade
straboccare, to overflow stramazzare, to drop like a stone strapiombare, to tilt, lean
straripare, to overflow subissare, to collapse sublimare, to sublimate
subentrare, to follow, come after succẹdere, to succeed, happen sussịtere, to subsist
svampire, to die down svanire, to vanish svaporare, to evaporate
svenire, to faint svignare, to high tail it
talentare, to do what you like terminare, to terminate, finish toccare, to touch, to play music
tombolare, to tumble tornare, to turn, return, go back trabocare, to overflow
tracollare, to lose one’s balance tralignare, to degenerate tramontare, to set, fade, wane
transitare, to pass, go, drive, walk through trapelare, to leak trascolorare, to discolor
trasecolare, to astonish trascorrere, to spend time trasmigrare, to transmigrate
traspirare, to transpire trasudare, to ooze, seep trasumanare, to become superhuman
trasvolare, to fly across
uscire, to go out
valere, to be worth venire, to come vịvere, to live

Approximately 150 compound verbs may be formed by using either avereor ęssereThis author treats such verbs as using avereto make the compound forms.

NOTE:  When a verb is used reflexively, all past tenses are formed using ęssere as the auxiliary verb.  There are no exceptions to this rule.