Chapter 16 - The Formation of Compound Verbs

The formation of compound verbs ( have spoken, had spoken, will have spoken, and so on) is the same as in English, namely the use an auxiliary verb (to be or to have), and the past form of the main verb.  This usage is the same as it is in English.  In common speech, the translation of these forms into English is often the simple past tense, especially when a past action relates to something happening now.

1. The forms of the verb avere(to have)
            I spoke, have spoken                           Io  ho parlato
            You spoke, have spoken                     Tu hai parlato
            He, she spoke, has spoken                  Lei, lui ha parlato
            We spoke, have spoken                       Noi abbiamo parlato
            You spoke, have spoken                     Voi avẹte parlato
            They spoke, have spoken                    Loro hanno parlato

            I had spoken                                       Io avẹvo parlato
            You had spoken                                  Tu avẹvi parlato
            He, she had spoken                             Lei, lui avẹva parlato
            We had spoken                                   Noi avevamo parlato
            You had spoken                                  Voi avevate parlato
            They had spoken                                 Loro avẹvano parlato

            I will have sold                                   Io avrò venduto
            You will have sold                              Tu avrai venduto
            He, she, it will have sold                     Lei, lui avrà venduto
            We will have sold                               Noi avrẹmo venduto
            You will have sold                              Voi avrẹte venduto
            They will have sold                             Loro avranno venduto

            I would have finished                         Io avrẹi finito
            You would have finished                   Tu avrẹsti finito
            He, she, it would have finished          Lei, lui avrebbe finito
            We would have finished                     Noi avrẹmmo finito
            You would have finished                   Voi avrẹste finito
            They would have finished                  Loro avrębbero finito

Pronunciation note : The past verb forms are all stressed on the second to last vowel.


The compound forms of most verbs is made by using avere, but some compound forms are made by using ęssere.  The following is a list of those verbs.  Compound verbs (muovere :: rimuovere) also use ęssere.

accadere, to happen                                           accagliare, to curdle                           accẹdere, to accede
albeggiare, to dawn                                           ammalare, to fall ill                             ammatire, to become or go crazy
ammontare, to mount up, amount                   ammuffire, to become moldy           
ammutolire, to become dumbfounded                                                                           andare, to go
annegare, to drown                                             annottare, to become night               apparire, to seem, to appear
appartenere, to belong                                       appassire, to wither, wilt                    appoggiare, to lean, lay, rest
approdare, to come to a decision                    ạrdere, to burn                                     arenare, to run aground
arrabbiare, to become angry                            arrivare, to arrive                                                arrosire, to blush
arrostire, to roast                                                arruginire, to rust                                          arruvidire, to roughen
asfissiare, to become asphyxiated                  assommare, to amount to                  aumentare, to increase, augment
avanzare, to advance                                         avvenire, to happen                            avvizzire, to wither

bacare, to become corrupt, bad                       balenare, to flash                                                baluginare, to glimmer, blink
balzare, to bounce                                              bạttere, to beat                                    brinare, to frost, have frost
bruciare, to burn

cadere, to fall                                                       cagliare, to curdle                               calare, to fall (said of prices)
cambiare, to change                                           capitare, to turn out, result                                cascare, to cascade, to fall
comparire, to appear                                          convenire, to be convenient              cọrrere, to run
costare, to cost                                                     costumare, to be the custom             crẹscere, to grow

decadere, to decline                                            decẹdere, to die, to be deceased       decọrrere, to run out of time
decrẹscere, to decrease                                      defluire, to flow out                            deperire, to become run down
dimagrire, to lose weight                                    diminuire, to diminish                        dipẹndere, to depend
divampare, to burst into flames                        disconvenire, to disagree                   discordare, to differ in opinon
dispiacere, to displease                                      divenire, to become                            diventare, to become
durare, to last                                                       durire, to harden

eccẹllere, to excel                                                emẹrgere, to emerge                            entrare, to enter
esịstere, to exist                                                   esplǫdere, to explode                         ęssere, to be

fiocare, to fall (like snow)                                  fiorire, to flower, to bloom                                fuggire, to flee

garbare, to be suitable                                       gelare, to gel, set, become solid        ghiacciare, to freeze
giacere, to lie, to rest                                           giùngere, to join

imbizzire, to get angry                                        imbrunire, to get dark                         imbruttire, to grow ugly
immigrare, to immigrate                                    impazientire, to become impatient  impazzare, to become or go crazy
impietrire, to turn to stone                                 imputridire, to become rotten           inasinare, to become stupid
incallire, to become callous                              incanutire, to become gray haired   incaparbire, to become obstinate
incappare, to stumble                                        incarnire, to grow in                           incọmbere, to be incumbent
incominciare, to begin                                        incontrare, to meet                             incọrrere, to incur
incretinire, to lose one's mind                           incrudelire, to become cruel             indebolire, to weaken
ingiallire, to become, turn yellow                    inscurire, to make obscure                                insecchire, to become dry, dry up
insọrgere, to revolt, become insurgent            intercọrrere, to elapse                        intervenire, to intervene
intorbidire, to muddy                                        intristire, to wither from saddness
invalere, to prevail                                              invecchiare, to become, grow old    irrọmpere, to break, burst into

marcire, to become overripe                             migliorare, to improve, get better    morire, to die
muffire, to be musty                                            muǫvere, to move

nạscere, to be born                                              naufragare, to become shipwrecked               nevicare, to snow

occọrrere, to occur, to be necessary


parere, to seem                                                    partire, to leave                                   passare, to pass by or through
peggiorare, to worsen, to get worse                 permanere, to be permanent             pervenire, to reach, to get through
piacere, to like, to please                                   piǫvere, to rain                                     preesịstere, to preexist
prẹmere, to be urgent                                          premorire, to predecease                   putrefare, to putrify

rabbrividire, to shudder, shiver                        radoppiare, to double one’s efforts regredire, to regress
restare, to have left                                             riandare, to go back                           ricadere, to relapse, fall again
riapparire, to reappear                                      ricadere, to fall back, relapse           ricominciare, to recommence
ricomparire, to reappear                                    ricrẹscere, to regrow                           ridivenire, to become again
riemẹrgere, to reemerge                                     rientrare, to reenter                             rięssere, to become again
rimanere, to remain                                            rimbambire, to become feeble minded by age
rinạscere, to be reborn                                       rincitrullire, to become stupid         rincrẹscere, to regret
rincrudire, to get worse                                      rindurire, to reharden                         risavire, to come to one’s senses
rinsecchire, to dry up again                              rinvenire, to revive                              riparare, to take refuge
ripartire, to leave again                                     risultare, to result                                                riuscire, to succeed

salire, to leave                                                     sbalzare, to spring, to leap                 sbucare, to pop out
scadere, to fall or become due                          scappare, to escape                            scivolare, to slip
scomparire, to disappear                                   sconvenire, to be unbecoming          scopiare, to burst
scẹndere, to descend                                           sedere, to sit                                          sembrare, to seem
sfuggire, to run away                                         sfumare, to merge into                        smagrire, to become thin
soggiacere, to subject, be subject                    solere, to be in the habit of                                sopravvịvere, to survive
sǫrgere, to rise                                                      sottostare, to be under someone in rank
sovvenire, to help                                                                sparire, to disappear                           spegnere, to put out
spettare, to be due, to owe                                 spiacere, to be sorry                            spiǫvere, to stop raining
spirare, to expire                                                 spǫrgere, to protrude                          spronfọndere, to throw down
stare, to be                                                            stillare, to ooze, trickle                       stịngere, to remove color, to fade
straboccare, to overflow                                    stramazzare, to drop like a stone      strapiombare, to tilt, lean
straripare, to overflow                                       subissare, to collapse                          sublimare, to sublimate
subentrare, to follow, come after                     succẹdere, to succeed, happen         sussịtere, to subsist
svampire, to die down                                         svanire, to vanish                                                svaporare, to evaporate
svenire, to faint                                                    svignare, to high tail it


talentare, to do what you like                           terminare, to terminate, finish          toccare, to touch, to play music
tombolare, to tumble                                          tornare, to turn, return, go back       trabocare, to overflow
tracollare, to lose one’s balance                      tralignare, to degenerate                   tramontare, to set, fade, wane
transitare, to pass, go, drive, walk through    trapassare, to pierce, run, cross through, to trespass
trapelare, to leak                                                 trascolorare, to discolor                     trasecolare, to astonish
trascorrere, to spend time                                 trasmigrare, to transmigrate             traspirare, to transpire
trasudare, to ooze, seep                                     trasumanare, to become superhuman
trasvolare, to fly across

uscire, to go out

valere, to be worth                                              venire, to come                                    vịvere, to live

Approximately 150 compound verbs may be formed by using either avereor ęssereThis author treats such verbs as using avereto make the compound forms.


NOTE:  When a verb is used reflexively, all past tenses are formed using ęssere as the auxiliary verb.  There are no exceptions to this rule.