Chapter 17 - Past forms of the verbs

The past forms of verbs are those such as arrived, baked, cooked, eaten, spoken, and so on.  In English, the past forms are usually made by adding an ending to the root verb.  For example, -en is added to eat, and -edis added to talk.  Some of the forms are irregular, such as sunk (from sink).  Past forms are used with the verbs to be or to have to make the compound verb forms (such as are used, have gone and so on), and they are also used as adjectives.  We say the spoken word, the cooked meat, and so on.  A similar situation exists in Italian.

Group 1 verbs
Most of the past forms of the verbs in group 1 are made by adding the ending -atoto the stem.
            examples:        andare, to go               andato, gone               chiamare, to call         chiamato, called
                                    giocare, to play           giocato, played            parlare, to speak         parlato, spoken

The verb fare, and its compounds, have a past form ending in -atto.
                Like fare:              assuefare, to accustom, inure           contraffare, to counterfeit                 disassuefare, to give up a habit
                                                disfare, to undo                                   liquefare, to liquify                             putrefare, to putrify
                                                rarefare, to rarefy                               rifare, to do over, repeat                    sfare, to undo, to thaw, melt
                                                soddisfare, to satisfy                          soprafare, to overwhelm                    strafare, to do too much overdo
                                                stupefare, to stupefy                           torrefare, to roast                                tumefare, to swell
There are no other irregularities in group 1 verbs.

Group 3 verbs
In group 3, the regular past forms are made by adding the ending -ito to the stem.
            examples:        finire, to finish             finito, finished             partire, to part             partito, parted
In group 3, the following verbs and their compounds have irregular past forms.
            apparire, to appear;           past form = apparso
                                Like apparire:                                       comparire, to show oneself               riapparire, to reappear
                                ricomparire, to show up again; to turn up                                                      scomparire, to disappear
                                sparire, to vanish                                                trasparire, to shine or show through
                aprire, to open;                    past form = aperto
                                Like aprire:                                           coprire, to cover                                  disasprire, to mollify
                                inasprire, to embitter                          riaprire, to reopen                               ricoprire, to cover again
                                riscoprire, to rediscover                     scoprire, to uncover
                dire, to say;                          past form = detto
                                Like dire:                                               benedire, to bless                                 contradire, to contradict
                                disdire, to retract                                interdire, to interdict, prohibit           maledire, to curse
                                predire, to predict                                ridire, to repeat                                    ribenedire, to bless again
                morire, to die;                       past form = morto
                                Like morire:
                                premorire, to die before; to predecease                                                          smorire, to look pale
                offrire, to offer;                   past form = offerto
                                Like offrire:                                          rioffrire, to reoffer                              soffrire, to suffer
                venire, to come;                   past form = venuto
                                Like venire:                                           addivenire, to come to pass              avvenire, to happen
                                circonvenire, to circumvent              contravenire, to contravene              convenire, to convene
                                divenire, to become                            intervenire, to intervene                     pervenire, to reach
                                prevenire, to prevent                          riconvenire, to reconvene                  ridivenire, to become again
                                rinvenire, to rediscover, recover       risoveniresi, to recollect                     rivenire, to come back
                                sconvenire, to be unbecoming          sovvenire, to help                                                svenire, to faint
note: The verbs disseppellire(to exhume), riseppellire(to rebury), and seppellire(to bury) have both regular (~lito) and irregular forms (~polto).

Although they belong to group 2, all of the verbs which end in -ịsterehave past forms using -ito as the ending.  The complete list of such verbs follows.
assịstere, to be present; assistito          coesịstere, to coexist; coesistito           consịstere, to consist; consistito
desịstere, to desist; desistito                esịstere, to exist; esistito                      insịstere, to insist; insistito
persịstere, to persist; persistito            preesịstere, to preexist; preesistito      resịstere, to resist; resistito
sussịstere, to subsist; sussistito

Group 2 verbs
In group 2, most of the verbs have regular forms which are made by adding -uto to the stem.
            examples:  cadere, to fall        caduto, fallen              vẹndere, to sell            venduto, sold

With two exceptions (nạscereand rinạscere), if the verb ends in -cere, the ending -iutois used to maintain the soft sound of the letter c.   example:          giacere, to lie down    giaciuto
[The past forms of nascere and rinascere are nato and rinato.]

Some past forms follow patterns set by a root verb.  These patterns follow.

When the simple past tense is formed by using the endings -si or -ssi, the past form is made by using the stem of the simple past tense.  Verbs with the endings -siand -ssiseparate easily into two subgroups.  These are characterized by a stress on the stem.

            Subgroup 1 - verbs which end in -si in the simple past tense
            The past forms of some group 2 verbs which have a stress on the stem (such as accẹndere, where the
            stem is accẹnd-) have irregular past forms which are made from the first person singular (the “I”
             form) of the simple past tense.  Using the verb accẹndere (to light) as an example,  the first person
            singular of the simple past tense is accesi.  The past form is made by dropping the ending -i, and
            adding -o.  Thus, the past form is acceso.  The shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in
            bold type.
                ạrdere, to burn                        past form = arso
                                Like ạrdere:                                          riạrdere, to burn again
                accẹndere, to ignite                 past form = acceso
                        Like accẹndere:                              accondiscẹndere, to acquiesce
                                appẹndere, to append                        apprẹndere, to learn                           ascẹndere, to ascend
                                attẹndere, to wait                                comprẹndere, to comprehend           condiscẹndere, to condescend
                                contẹndere, to contend                      difẹndere, to defend                           dipẹndere, to depend
                                disattẹndere, to disregard                  discẹndere, to descend                       distẹndere, to distend
                                estẹndere, to extend                            fraintẹndere, to misunderstand, misinterpret
                                intẹndere, to intend                             intraprẹndere, to undertake              offẹndere, to offend
                                prẹndere, to take, to catch                pretẹndere, to pretend                        propẹndere, to be inclined
                                protẹndere, to hold or stretch out     rapprẹndere, to congeal                     rẹndere, to give back, return
                                riaccẹndere, to light again                 riappẹndere, to hang up again         riapprẹndere, to re-learn
                                ridiscẹndere, to redescend                 riprẹndere, to take again                   scẹndere, to go down
                                soprintẹndere, to supervise               sorprẹndere, to surprise                      sospẹndere, to suspend
                                sottintęndere, to imply, drive at       spẹndere, to spend                              stẹndere, to stretch out
                                tẹndere, to stretch, tighten                 trascẹndere, to transcend                  vilipẹndere, to vilify, revile, to defame
            arrịdere, to smile upon            past form = arriso
                                Like arrịdere:                                        assịdersi, to sit down                          circoncịdere, to circumcise
                                coincịdere, to coincide                       collịdere, to collide                             condivịdere, to share
                                decịdere, to decide                              derịdere, to deride, mock                   divịdere, to divide
                                elịdere, to elide                                    incịdere, to cut into, incise                 intrịdere, to mix
                                irrịdere, to deride, to mock               rịdere, to laugh                                    ridivịdere, to redivide
                                sorrịdere, to smile, to grin                  strịdere, to screech                              suddivịdere, to subdivide
                                uccịdere. to kill
                acclùdere, to include              past form = accluso
                                Like acclùdere:                                    allùdere, to allude                               chiùdere, to close
                                collùdere, to collude                           conclùdere, to conclude                     delùdere, to delude
                                dischiùdere, to disclose                      disillùdere, to disillusion                    elùdere, to elude
                                esclùdere, to exclude                          estrùdere, to extrude                           illùdere, to deceive
                                inclùdere, to include                           intrùdere, to intrude                            occlùdere, to occlude
                                preclùdere, to preclude                      prelùdere, to be a sign, presage        protrùdere, to protrude
                                prùdere, to itch, be itchy                    racchiùdere, to contain, hold            reclùdere, to be reclusive
                                richiùdere, to close again                  rinchiùdere, to shut or lock up         schiùdere, to unlock
                                socchiùdere, to half-close
                aspẹrgere, to sprinkle              past form = asperso
                                Like aspẹrgere:                                     astẹrgere, to wipe away, cleanse      convẹrgere, to converge
                                detẹrgere, to cleanse, wash               dispẹrdere, to disperse                        divẹrgere, to diverge
                                emẹrgere, to emerge                           immẹrgere, to immerse                      pẹrdere, to lose
                riemẹrgere, to re-emerge                    sommẹrgere, to submerge                  tẹrgere, to wipe off or away
                cọrrere, to run                         past form = corso
                                Like cọrrere                                           decọrrere, to elapse                            discọrrere, to talk about
                                incọrrere, to incur                               intercọrrere, to elapse                        occọrrere, to occur
                                precọrrere, to precede                        trascọrrere, to pass or spend time
                evạdere, to evade                    past form = evaso
                                Like evạdere:                                       dissuạdere, to dissuade                      invạdere, to invade
                                persuạdere, to persuade                     rạdere, to shave

            The following verbs also belong to this group.
            contundere, to bruise              past form = contuso
            cospạrgere, to sprinkle            past form = cosparso
            eccẹllere, to excel                    past form = eccelso
            espẹllere, to expel                   past form = espulso
                            Like espẹllere:                                      repẹllere, to repel
            esplǫdere, to explode              past form = esploso
                                Like esplǫdere:                                     corrọdere, to corrode                          erọdere, to erode
                                implǫdere, to implode                        riesplǫdere, to explode again           rọdere, to gnaw
            fọndere, to fuse, smelt             past form = fuso
                                Like fọndere:                                        circonfọndere, to surround                                confọndere, to confuse
                                diffọndere, to diffuse                          effọndere, to pour out, effuse           infọndere, to infuse
                                profọndere, to lavish                          soffọndere, to suffuse                         trasfọndere, to transfuse
            mǫrdere, to bite                      past form = morso
                                Like mǫrdere:                                       demǫrdere, to give up, quit                rimǫrdere, to bite again or back
            spạrgere, to scatter, strew       past form = sparso

            In this group, some past forms are made by dropping the ending -si and adding -to to the stem of the       first person singular of the simple past tense.  For example, the verb is accǫrgere, the first person         singular of the simple past tense is accorsi, the ending -siis dropped and -to is added, making
            The shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.
                                accǫrgersi, to perceive                       aggiùngere, to add                             assùrgere, to rise
                                attịngere, to attain                              attǫrcere, to twist                               avvịncere, to charm
                                avvǫlgere, to wrap, wrap up              capovǫlgere, to overturn                   cịngere, to gird
                                coinvǫlgere, to involve                      convịncere to convince                      convịncersi, to convince oneself
                                dipịngere, to depict                             disgiùngere, to disjoin, to sever        dissǫlvere, to dissolve
                                distịnguere, to distinguish                  distǫrcere, to distort                            divẹllere, to uproot
                                ẹrgere, to raise, lift up                         estịnguere, to extinguish                    evịncere, to infer
                                fịngere, to feign                                   frạngere, to break, smash                  fùngere, to act as someone
                                giùngere, to arrive                               indùlgere, to indulge                           infrạngere, to infringe
                                insǫrgere, to rebel, revolt                   mùngere, to milk                                 piạngere, to weep
                                pǫrgere, to offer                                  pùngere, to prick                                 ricongiùngere, to rejoin
                                risǫlvere, to resolve                             risǫrgere, to rise again                        sọrgere, to rise
                                spạndere, to spread                             spịngere, to push                                 spǫrgere, to stick out
                                stravịncere, to trounce, crush            svẹllere, to tear out                             tịngere, to tint, dye
                                tǫrcere, to twist                                    ùngere, to oil, grease                           vịncere, to win
                                vǫlgere, to turn
            The following verbs also belong to this group.
            assùmere, to assume               past form = assunto
                                Like assùmere:                     consùmere, to consume                                      desùmere, to deduce, infer, gather
                                                                                presùmere, to presume                                       riassùmere, to resume
            cǫgliere, to gather                   past form = colto
                                Like cǫgliere                                         accǫgliere, to welcome                      disciǫgliere, to dissolve
                                distǫgliere, to withdraw                     riaccǫgliere, to readmit someone    ritǫgliere, to take away again
                                scẹgliere, to choose                            sciǫgliere, to untie, to loosen            tǫgliere, to take away
            pọrre, to put                                        past form = pọsto
                                Like pọrre:
                                antepọrre, to place or put before     appọrre, to append                             compọrre, to compose
                                contrappọrre, to contrast                  contropropọrre, to counteroffer      decompọrre, to decompose
                                depọrre, to put, set, lay down           dispọrre, to dispose                             espọrre, to expose
                                fotocompọrre, to photocompose      frappọrre, to interpose                       giustappọrre, to juxtapose
                                impọrre, to impose                              indispọrre, to irritate; to annoy        interpọrre, to interpose
                                oppọrre, to oppose                              pospọrre, to postpone                        predispọrre, to predispose
                                prepọrre, to place before                   presuppọrre, to presuppose               propọrre, to propose
                                ricompọrre, to recompose                 ridispọrre, to rearrange                      riespọrre, to exhibit, display, expose
                                ripọrre, to replace                               ripropọrre, to repropose                    scompọrre, to take apart, dismantle
                                sottoespọrre, to underexpose            sottopọrre, to place underneath       sovraespọrre, to overexpose
                                sovrappọrre, to superimpose            sovrimpọrre, to overlay                      suppọrre, to suppose
                                traspọrre, to transpose
            redịmere, to redeem                past form = redento
            spẹgnere, to put out                past form = spento

            Subgroup 2 - verbs which end in -ssi in the simple past tense
            Like accẹndere, the verbs in this subgroup have a stress on the stem.  The past forms
            are made from the first person singular of the simple past tense.  Using affịggere as an example,
            the first person singular of the simple past tense is affissi.  The past form is made by dropping the
            last letter, -i, and adding -o.  Thus, the past form is affisso.  Compound of the root verb have the
            same irregularities as the root verb.  Some of the compound verbs are listed here.  The shortened
            stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.
            affịggere, to affix                    past form = affisso (from the simple past tense affissi)
                                Like affịggere:                                      annẹttere, to annex                             circonflẹttere, to bend around
                                concẹdere, to concede                        connẹttere, to connect                        deflẹttere, to deflect
                                discùtere, to discuss                            rescịndere, to rescind                          riflẹttere, to reflect
                                scịndere, to separate                           sconnẹttere, to disconnect

            The following verbs also belong to this group.
            imprịmere, to impress             past form = impresso (from the simple past tense impressi)
                                Like imprịmere:                                   comprịmere, to compress                   decomprịmere, to decompress
                                deprịmere, to depress                          esprịmere, to express                          opprịmere, to oppress


            In this group, some past forms are made by adding the ending -ttoto the stem of the first person singular of the simple past tense.  For example, fịggere, fissi, fitto; scrịvere, scrissi, scritto.  The            shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.
                corrẹggere, to correct             past form = corretto (from the simple past tense corressi)
                                Like corrẹggere:                                  elęggere, to elect                                 lęggere, to read
                                rẹggere, to hold                                   ricorrẹggere, to correct again           rielęggere, to reelect
                                rilęggere, to read again, reread        sorrẹggere, to uphold, support         sprotẹggere, to unprotect
            cuǫcere, to cook                      past form = cotto (from the simple past tense cossi)
                                Like cuǫcere:                                        percuǫtere, to strike                            ricuǫcere, to recook
                                riscuǫtere, to draw a salary               scuǫcere, to overcook                        scuǫtere, to shake
                                stracuǫcere, to overdo
            dirịgere, to direct                    past form = diretto (from the simple past tense diressi)
                                Like dirịgere:                         erịgere, to erect (eretto)                     neglịgere, to neglect (negletto)
                fịggere, to fix                          past form = fitto (from the simple past tense fissi)
                                Like fịggere:                                          affịggere, to affix                               afflịggere, to afflict
                                confịggere, to nail                               conflịggere, to conflict                       crocifịggere, to crucify
                                distrùggere, to destroy                       frịggere, to fry                                     infịggere, to drive, thrust
                                inflịggere, to inflict                             prefịggere, to arrange in advance    rifrịggere, torefry
                                sconfịggere, to defeat, vanquish      sfrịggere, to sizzle                               soffrịggere, to fry slowly, brown
                                strùggere, to melt, thaw                     trafịggere, to transfigure
                scrịvere, to write                     past form = scritto (from the simple past tense scrissi)
                                Like scrịvere:                                        ascrịvere, to ascribe                            circoscrịvere, to circumscribe
                                coscrịvere, to conscript                      descrịvere, to describe                        inscrịvere, to inscribe
                                iscrịvere, to enroll                                prescrịvere, to prescribe                     proscrịvere, to proscribe
                                reinscrịvere, to reenter                       riscrịvere, to rewrite                            sottoscrịvere, to underwrite
                                sovrascrịvere, to overwrite                trascrịvere, to transcribe
            trarre, to draw                        past form = tratto (from the simple past tense trassi)
                                Like trarre:                                            astrarre, to abstract                            attrarre, to attract
                                contrarre, to contract                         decontrarre, to relax                           detrarre, to detract
                                distrarre, to distract                            estrarre, to extract                              protrarre, to protract
                                ritrarre, to retract                               sottrarre, to subtract

            The following verbs also belong to this group.
            addurre, to adduce                 past form = adotto (from the simple past tense addussi)
                                Like addurre:                                        circondurre, to lead around              condurre, to conduct
                                dedurre, to deduce                              indurre, to induce                               introdurre, to introduce
                                produrre, to produce                          reintrodurre, to reintroduce              ricondurre, to bring, take again
                                ridurre, to reduce                                riprodurre, to reproduce                    ritradurre, to retranslate
                                sedurre, to seduce                               tradurre, to translate                          trasdurre, to transduce
            esịgere, to demand                  past form = esatto
            redịgere, to edit                      past form = redatto
                rifrạngere, to refract               past form = rifratto

Some of the forms are irregular.
            chiẹdere, to ask                                   past form = chiesto
            corrispọndere, to correspond              past form = corrispọsto
            costrịngere, to compel             past form = costretto
            mẹttere, to place, put                           past form = messo
                                Like mẹttere:                                        ammẹttere, to admit                            ammẹttere, to admit, to let in
                                annẹttere, to annex                             commẹttere, to commit                       compromẹttere, to compromise
                                connẹttere, to connect                        dimẹttere, to discharge                       dismẹttere, to discard
                                emẹttere, to emit                                  estromẹttere, to exclude, to oust       frammẹttere, to insert
                                immẹttere, to put in                             inframmẹttere, to interpose                inframmẹttersi, to interfere, to meddle
, to interconnect       intromẹttere, to insert                         intromettersi, to intervene
                                manomẹttere, to tamper with            omẹttere, to omit                                 permẹttere, to permit
                                premẹttere, to state first                     promẹttere, to promise                       radiotrasmẹttere, to broadcast, to radio.
                                riammẹttere, to readmit                      ricetrasmẹttere, to transmit and receive.
                                ricommẹttere, to commit again         riemẹttere, to re-issue                          rimẹttere, to remit
                                ripromẹttere, to promise again         ritrasmẹttere, to rebroadcast             scommẹttere, to disconnect, to wager
                                smẹttere, to stop, to quit                     sottomẹttere, to subjugate               teleradiotrasmẹttere, to simulcast
                                trasmẹttere, to pass on or down        videotrasmẹttere, to broadcast on television; to telecast
            nạscere, to be born                              past form = nato
            nascọndere, to conceal, hide               past form = nascọsto
            parere, to seem                                   past form = parso
            rinạscere, to be reborn                        past form = rinato
            rispọndere, to respond                        past form = rispọsto
            solere, to be in the habit of     past form = sǫlito
            strịngere, to clasp, clutch        past form = stretto
            vedere, to see                          past form = visto
                                Like vedere:                                          antivedere, to foresee                         intravedere, to glimpse
                                prevedere, to see ahead                     provedere, to provide, look after      rivedere, to see again
                                stravedere, to see things, hallucinate                                                               travedere, to be misled
            vịvere, to live                           past form = vissuto
                                Like vịvere:                                                                           rivịvere, to relive, live again