Appendix B

Pronunciation of verbs in group 1 ( -are )

Verbs in the present tense keep the accent on the stem of the verb, except for the “noi”and “voi” forms which ALWAYS follow the usual rules.

 

With a few exceptions, verbs which have a double consonant before the group ending -are have standard pronunciation, that is the accent falls on the last vowel of the stem.   In the following example, allungare, the stem is allung-.

          example:   allungare, to lengthen:   allungo, allunghi, allunga, allunghiamo, allungate, allùngano

            exceptions:         arbitrare, to arbitrate (àrbitro); calibrare, to calibrate (càlibro); celebrare, to celebrate

                                    (cèlebro), compenetrare, to permeate (compènetro); elucubrare, to scheme, (elùcubro);

                                    disintegrare , to disintegrate (disìntegro); integrare, to integrate (ìntegro);

                                    penetrare, to penetrate (pènetro); reintegrare, to reintegrate (reìntegro)

 

With one exception (the verb purificare), verbs which end in -icare are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem.   In the following example, beneficare, the stem is benefic-.

          example :   beneficare, to do good:   benèfico, benèfichi, benèfica, benefichiamo, beneficate, benèficano

 

Verbs which end in -iare find the stress on the vowel which precedes the letter “i”.

          example:   alleviare, to alleviate:   allèvio, allèvi, allèvia, alleviamo, allevate, allèviano

 

Verbs that end in -iare do not double the letter i if the ending begins with an i.

 

Most of the group 1 verbs which have a single vowel followed by a single consonant before the group ending have regular pronunciation, that is they are stressed on the last vowel of the stem.

In the following example, the stem is underlined.

          baston are (to cane): bastóno, bastóni, bastóna, bastoniamo, bastonate, bastónano

 

However, many of the group 1 verbs of this type are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem.   For example:

            acclimatare (to acclimate): acclìmato, acclìmati, acclìmata, acclimatiamo, acclimate, acclìmatano

 

Using the Sansoni® and Zanichelli® dictionaries, an exhaustive search revealed 2,206 verbs of this type, of which 984 are pronounced by stressing the second to last vowel of the stem.   The following table shows the verb endings, the number of such verbs, and those verbs which are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem where it is practical to list them.   The term “regular” means that the accent falls on the last vowel of the stem, as shown above.   An exception means that the accent falls on the second to last vowel of the stem.

 

-abare (1)          sillabare, to divide into syllables

-acare (15)        regular except --> sindacare, to syndicate; smonacare, to defrock;

                        stomacare, to turn one’s stomach

-adare (10)        all regular

-afare (20)        regular except --> cinematografare, to film; dattilografare, to type; litografare, to lithograph;

                        mimeografare , to mimeograph; paragrafare, to paragraph; radiografare, to radiograph;

                        schermografare, to X-ray; stenografare, to write in shorthand

-agare (18)        regular except --> girovagare, to roam about; naufragare, to shipwreck

-alare (31)         all regular

-amare (34)       regular except --> amalgamare, to amalgamate

-anare (45)        regular except --> modanare, to mold

-apare (4)          all regular

-arare (22)         all regular

-asare (21)        regular except --> parafrasare, to paraphrase

-atare (26)         regular except --> acclimatare, to acclimate; riacclimatare, to reacclimate

-avare (14)        all regular

-ebare (0)

-ecare (17)        regular except --> bisecare, to bisect; estrinsecare, to express; intersecare, to intersect;

                        resecare, to resection; trisecare, to trisect

-edare (10)        all regular

-efare (11)        all of these verbs are formed like the verb fare

- egare (36)        regular except --> delegare, to delegate; subdelegare, to subdelegate

-elare (31)         all regular

-emare (9)         all regular

-enare (35)        all regular

-epare (4)          all regular

-erare (136)       there are nine regular verbs, asseverare, to assert; avverare, to aver; azzerare, to set to zero;

                        calmierare, to fix prices; imperare, to rule; sincerare, to convince; schierare, to line up;

                        sbandierare, to wave; trincerare, to trench;   the other verbs are stressed on the second

                        to last vowel of the stem

-esare (13)        all regular

-etare (21)         regular except --> interpretare, to interpret; reinterpretare, to reinterpret; vegetare, to

                        vegetate

-evare (9)          all regular

-iare (929)         all of these verbs are stressed on the first vowel before the letter "i"; (alleviare - allèvio, allèvi, allèvia, allèviano)

-ibare (4)           all regular

-icare (267)       all of these verbs are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem; there is one exception,

                        namely purificare, which is stressed on the last vowel of the stem

-idare (37)        regular except --> consolidare, to consolidate; convalidare, to confirm, delucidare, to

                        elucidate; dilapidare, to dilapidate, gracidare, to croak; inamidare, to starch;

                        ingravidare, to make pregnant; intorbidare, to make turbid; invalidare, to invalidate;

                        lapidare, to stone; liquidare, to liquidate; lucidare, to polish

-ifare (3)           all regular

-igare (24)         regular except --> circumnavigare, to circumnavigate; disobbligare, to disobligate;

                        fumigare, to fumigate; fustigare, to flog; investigare, to investigate; levigare, to smooth;

                        litigare, to litigate; mitigare, to mitigate; navigare, to navigate; obbligare, to obligate;

                        prodigare, to be prodigal; reobbligare, to reobligate

-ilare (38)          regular except --> assimilare, to assimilate; giubilare, to jubilate; mutilare, to mutilate;

                        ventilare , to ventilate; sibilare, to hiss

-imare (34)        all regular

-inare (221)       all of these verbs are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem (example: esaminare,

                        esàmino, esàmini, esàmina, esaminiamo, esaminate, esàminano), unless there is a double

                        consonant before the second stem vowel (example: addottrinare, addottrino, addottrini,

                        addottrina , addottriniamo, addottrinate, addottrìnano)

-ipare (11)         regular except --> anticipare, to anticipate; compartecipare, to coparticipate;

                        dissipare, to dissipate; emancipare, to emancipate; partecipare, to participate;

                        posticipare, to postpone; stereotipare, to stereotype; straripare, to burst its banks, overflow

-irare (26)         all regular

-isare (11)         all regular

-itare (115)       all of these verbs are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem (example: necessitare,

                        necéssito, necéssiti, necéssita, necessitiamo, necessitate, necéssitano )

-ivare (31)         all regular

-obare (4)          all regular

-ocare (23)        eighteen of these verbs are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem;   the other five

                        verbs are regular;   the five regular verbs are dislocare, to dislocate; giocare, to play;

                        inforcare, to make red hot; invocare, to invoke; stocare, to blur

-odare (28)       all regular, except accomodare, to accomodate; comodare, to loan; incomodare, to bother;

                        periodare, to form sentences; raccomodare, to repair; riaccomodare, to fix again;

                        scomodare, to disturb

-ofare (2)          all regular

-ogare (27)        two of these verbs are regular;   the two verbs are interrogare, to interrogate; and

                        reinterrogare, to reinterrogate; the other twentyfive of these verbs are stressed on the second

                        to last vowel of the stem

-olare (174)       four of these verbs are regular, namely colare, to strain, filter; immolare, to immolate;

                        molare, to grind; involare, to steal;   the rest of these verbs are stressed on the second to last

                        vowel of the stem

-omare (8)         all regular, except menomare, to lessen; sagomare, to mould

-onare (174)      all regular

-opare (4)          all of these verbs are stressed on the second to last vowel of the stem

-orare (87)        all regular except collaborare, to collaborate; commemorare, to commemorate;

                        corroborare, to corroborate; disancorare, to weigh anchor; elaborare, to elaborate;

                        esautorare, to deauthorize; espettorare, to expectorate; evaporare, to evaporate;

                        folgorare, to flash

-osare (11)        all regular

-otare (25)        all regular

-ovare (15)        all regular

-ubare (8)          all regular

-ucare (8)          all regular except diseducare, to unlearn; educare, to educate; rieducare, to re-educate

-udare (12)       all regular

-ufare (3)          all regular

-ugare (13)        all regular except centrifugare, to centrifuge; ignifugare, to fire proof

-ulare (42)         only one verb is regular, adulare, to adulate, flatter;   all of the other verbs are stressed on the

                        second vowel of the stem

-umare (23)       all regular

-unare (10)        all regular

-upare (4)          all regular except occupare, to occupy; preoccupare, to preoccupy, worry;

                        rioccupare, to reoccupy

-urare (22)        all regular

-usare (10)        all regular

-utare (32)        all regular except amputare, to amputate; disputare, to dispute; permutare, to barter

                        reclutare, to recruit

-uvare (1)          all regular

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-4 24-5

Appendix A C D E F G H I

Index

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