Appendix H --- Past participles of the verbs ending in –ere and –rre

Italian verbs – group 2, verbs ending in –ere

~bere = 3 all regular

~cere = 46

        ~acére = 9 all regular (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

        ~àscere = 2 nàscere = nato; rinàscere = rinato

        ~ncere = 6 in all cases, ~ncere becomes ~nto

        ~òcere = nuòcere is regular (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

                      cuòcere, ricuòcere, scuòcere, and stracuòcere become còtto, ricòtto, scòtto, and stracòtto

        ~rcere = 7 in all cases, ~rcere becomes ~rto

        ~scere = 14 all regular (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

        ~ùcere = 2 both regular (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

~dere = 178

        ~àdere = 7 in all cases, ~àdere becomes ~aso

        ~adére = 5 all regular

        ~àndere = 2 in all cases, ~àndere becomes ~aso

        àrdere, riàrdere = 2 verbs; past participle = arso

        ~èdere = 22 of which 17 are regular

                        chièdere, concèdere, lèdere, richièdere, and succèdere become chiesto, concesso, leso, richiesto, successo

        ~èndere = 48 verbs; in 43 cases, ~èndere becomes ~eso vèndere, rivèndere, retrovèdere are regular (~uto )

                        (2 verbs ~ splèndere, risplèndere – have no past participle)

        ~èrdere = 4 verbs; in all cases, ~èrdere becomes ~erso

        fóndere, ~fóndere = 12 in all cases, ~fóndere becomes ~fuso

        ~ìdere = 22 verbs;in 21 cases, ìdere becomes ~ìso; (strìdere has no past participle)

        ~ìndere = 4 in all cases, ~ìndere becomes ~isso

        ~ódere = 8 of which 2 are regular (godére, stragodére); 6 in which ~odere becomes ~óso

        ~óndere = 2 in all cases, ~óndere becomes ~ósto

        ~òrdere = 3 in all cases, ~òrdere becomes ~orso

        ~uadére = 2 in which ~uadére becomes ~uàso

        ~ùdere = 25 in all cases, ~ùdere becomes ~uso (1 verb, prùdere, has no past participle)

        ~ùndere = 2 in which ~ùndere becomes ~uso

        vedére, ~vedére = 8 in all cases, ~edére becomes ~isto

~gere = 113

        ~àngere = 7 in all cases, ~àngere becomes ~anto3

        ~àrgere = 2 in all cases, ~àrgere becomes ~arso

        ~èggere = 10 in all cases, ~èggere becomes ~ètto

        ~èrgere = 12 in all cases, ~èrgere becomes ~èrso

        ~ìgere = 7 verbs dirìgere, erìgere, predilìgere become ~etto; esìgere redìgere, transìgere become ~atto;                                                  vìgere has no past participle

        ~ìggere = 15 in all cases, ~ìggere becomes ~ìtto

        ~ìngere = 20 verbs 17 of which change from ~ìngere to ~into costrìngere, restrìngere, strìngere become ~retto

        ~lgere = 15 in all cases, ~lgere becomes ~lto

        ~òrgere = 6 in all cases, ~òrgere becomes ~òrto

        ~ùggere = 2 in all cases, ~ùggere becomes ~ùtto

        ~ùngere = 17 in all cases, ~ùngere becomes ~unto

~iere = 16

        ~iere = 2 (cómpiere) = regular; (adémpiere) has no past participle

        ~gliere = 14 in all cases, ~gliere becomes ~lto

~lere = 17

        ~alere = 5 verbs; in 4 cases, ~alere becomes ~also; calere has no past participle

        ~olere = 7 verbs of which 6 are regular; solere becomes solito

        ~ellere = divellere, svellere become ~elto eccellere becomes eccelso; espellere, repellere become ~pulso

~mere = 21

        ~emere = 5 all regular

        ~imere = 9 in all cases, ~imere becomes ~esso

        ~umere = 4 in all cases, ~umere becomes ~unto

        redimere is irregular becoming redento

        2 (derìmere, esìmere) have no past participle

~nere = 16 all regular

~pere = 7

        ~apere = 2 both regular

        ~ómpere = 5 in all cases, ~ómpere becomes ~ótto

~quere = 1 (delinquere) has no past participle

~rere = 17

        ~arére = 1 (parere) becomes parso

        ~órrere = 16 in all cases, ~órrere becomes ~órso

~sere = 4

        2 (intèssere, tèssere) are regular

        2 (èsserre, rièssere) are irregular becoming stato and ristato

~tere = 84

        ~attere = 8 all regular

        ~etere = 4 all regular

        ~éttere = 50 in all cases, ~ettere becomes ~esso

        ~istere = 11 in all cases, ~istere becomes ~istito

        ~otere = 5 in all cases, ~otere becomes ~osso

        ~ottere = 3 all regular

        ~utere = 3 in all cases, ~utere becomes ~usso

~uere = 2 (distìnguere, estìnguere) ~nguere becomes ~nto

~vere = 39

        ~evere = 3 all regular

        ~lvere = 5 all regular

        ~overe = 4 all regular

        ~rìvere = 14 in all cases, ~rìvere becomes ritto

        ~uòvere = 6 in all cases, ~uòvere becomes ~osso

        ~avere = avuto

        ~ivere = 4 in all cases, becomes ~issuto

 

Italian verbs ~ group 2, verbs ending in ~rre

~arre = 12 in all cases, ~arre becomes ~ atto

~orre = 35 in all cases, ~orre becomes ~osto

~urre = 16 in all cases, ~urre becomes ~otto

 

Verbs which have regular (~uto) past participles (87)

~acére (9) (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

~adére (5)

~attere (8)

~bere (3)

~emere (5)

~etere (4)

~evere (3)

~iere (2)

~lvere (5)

~nere (16)

~ottere (5)

~overe (4)

~scere (14) (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

~ùcere (2) (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

 

Verbs which have different but uniform endings

~àdere = 7 in all cases, ~àdere becomes ~aso

~àndere = 2 in all cases, ~àndere becomes ~aso

~àngere = 7 in all cases, ~àngere becomes ~anto

~arére = 1 (parere) becomes parso

~àrgere = 2 in all cases, ~àrgere becomes ~arso

~àscere = 2 nàscere = nato; rinàscere = rinato

~èggere = 10 in all cases, ~èggere becomes ~ètto

~èrdere = 4 verbs; in all cases, ~èrdere becomes ~erso

~èrgere = 12 in all cases, ~èrgere becomes ~èrso

~éttere = 50 in all cases, ~ettere becomes ~esso

fóndere, ~fóndere = 12 in all cases, ~fóndere becomes ~fuso

~gliere = 14 in all cases, ~gliere becomes ~lto

~ìdere = 22 verbs;in 21 cases, ìdere becomes ~ìso; (strìdere has no past participle)

~ìggere = 15 in all cases, ~ìggere becomes ~ìtto

~imere = 9 in all cases, ~imere becomes ~esso

~ìndere = 4 in all cases, ~ìndere becomes ~isso

~ìstere = 11 in all cases, ~ìstere becomes ~istito

~ivere = 4 in all cases, becomes ~issuto

~lgere = 15 in all cases, ~lgere becomes ~lto

~ncere = 6 in all cases, ~ncere becomes ~nto

~óndere = 2 in all cases, ~óndere becomes ~ósto

~òrdere = 3 in all cases, ~òrdere becomes ~orso

~òrgere = 6 in all cases, ~òrgere becomes ~òrto

~ómpere = 5 in all cases, ~ómpere becomes ~ótto

~órrere = 16 in all cases, ~órrere becomes ~órso

~otere = 5 in all cases, ~otere becomes ~osso

~rcere = 7 in all cases, ~rcere becomes ~rto

~rìvere = 14 in all cases, ~rìvere becomes ritto

~uadére = 2 in which ~uadére becomes ~uàso

~ùdere = 25 in all cases, ~ùdere becomes ~uso (1 verb, prùdere, has no past participle)

~uere = 2 in all cases ~nguere becomes ~nto

~ùggere = 2 in all cases, ~ùggere becomes ~ùtto

~ùndere = 2 in which ~ùndere becomes ~uso

~umere = 4 in all cases, ~umere becomes ~unto

~ùngere = 17 in all cases, ~ùngere becomes ~unto

~uòvere = 6 in all cases, ~uòvere becomes ~osso

~utere = 3 in all cases, ~utere becomes ~usso

vedére, ~vedére = 8 in all cases, ~edére becomes ~isto

 

Verbs which have a general pattern with some exceptions.

~òcere = nuòcere is regular (note: to maintain the soft c, the ending ~iuto is used)

cuòcere, ricuòcere, scuòcere, and stracuòcere become

còtto, ricòtto, scòtto, and stracòtto

~èdere = 22 of which 17 are regular

chièdere ~> chiesto; concèdere ~> concesso; lèdere ~> leso; richièdere ~> richiesto

succèdere ~> successo

~ódere = 8 of which 2 are regular (godére, stragodére); 6 in which ~odere becomes ~óso

~ìgere = 7 verbs dirìgere, erìgere, predilìgere become ~etto

esìgere redìgere, transìgere become ~atto; vìgere has no past participle

~ìngere = 20 verbs 17 of which change from ~ìngere to ~into

costrìngere, restrìngere, strìngere become ~retto

~ellere = divellere, svellere become ~elto

eccellere becomes eccelso; espellere, repellere become ~pulso

 

The past participles of the following verb groups all end with ~so.

~àdere = 7 in all cases, ~àdere becomes ~aso

~àndere = 2 in all cases, ~àndere becomes ~aso

~arére = 1 (parere) becomes parso

~àrgere = 2 in all cases, ~àrgere becomes ~arso

~èrdere = 4 verbs; in all cases, ~èrdere becomes ~erso

~èrgere = 12 in all cases, ~èrgere becomes ~èrso

~éttere = 50 in all cases, ~ettere becomes ~esso

fóndere, ~fóndere = 12 in all cases, ~fóndere becomes ~fuso

~ìdere = 22 verbs;in 21 cases, ìdere becomes ~ìso; (strìdere has no past participle)

~imere = 9 in all cases, ~imere becomes ~esso

~ìndere = 4 in all cases, ~ìndere becomes ~isso

~òrdere = 3 in all cases, ~òrdere becomes ~orso

~órrere = 16 in all cases, ~órrere becomes ~órso

~otere = 5 in all cases, ~otere becomes ~osso

~uadére = 2 in which ~uadére becomes ~uàso

~ùdere = 25 in all cases, ~ùdere becomes ~uso (1 verb, prùdere, has no past participle)

~ùndere = 2 in which ~ùndere becomes ~uso

~uòvere = 6 in all cases, ~uòvere becomes ~osso

~utere = 3 in all cases, ~utere becomes ~usso

 

The past participles of the following verb groups all end with ~to.

~àngere = 7 in all cases, ~àngere becomes ~anto

~àscere = 2 nàscere = nato; rinàscere = rinato

~èggere = 10 in all cases, ~èggere becomes ~ètto

~gliere = 14 in all cases, ~gliere becomes ~lto

~ìggere = 15 in all cases, ~ìggere becomes ~ìtto

~istere = 11 in all cases, ~istere becomes ~istito

~ivere = 4 in all cases, becomes ~issuto

~lgere = 15 in all cases, ~lgere becomes ~lto

~ncere = 6 in all cases, ~ncere becomes ~nto

~óndere = 2 in all cases, ~óndere becomes ~ósto

~òrgere = 6 in all cases, ~òrgere becomes ~òrto

~ómpere = 5 in all cases, ~ómpere becomes ~ótto

~rcere = 7 in all cases, ~rcere becomes ~rto

~rìvere = 14 in all cases, ~rìvere becomes ritto

~uere = 2 in all cases ~nguere becomes ~nto

~ùggere = 2 in all cases, ~ùggere becomes ~ùtto

~umere = 4 in all cases, ~umere becomes ~unto

~ùngere = 17 in all cases, ~ùngere becomes ~unto

vedére, ~vedére = 8 in all cases, ~edére becomes ~isto

 

The past participle of the following verbs all end with ~so    

~àdere = 7 in all cases, ~àdere becomes ~aso

 

so

~àndere = 2 in all cases, ~àndere becomes ~aso

 

so

~arére = 1 (parere) becomes parso

 

 

so

~àrgere = 2 in all cases, ~àrgere becomes ~arso

 

so

~èrdere = 4 verbs; in all cases, ~èrdere becomes ~erso

so

~èrgere = 12 in all cases, ~èrgere becomes ~èrso

 

so

fóndere, ~fóndere = 12 in all cases, ~fóndere becomes ~fuso

so

~ìdere = 22 verbs;in 21 cases, ìdere becomes ~ìso; (strìdere has no past participle)

so

~òrdere = 3 in all cases, ~òrdere becomes ~orso

 

so

~órrere = 16 in all cases, ~órrere becomes ~órso

 

so

~uadére = 2 in which ~uadére becomes ~uàso

 

so

~ùdere = 25 in all cases, ~ùdere becomes ~uso (1 verb, prùdere, has no past participle)

so

~ùndere = 2 in which ~ùndere becomes ~uso

 

so

~éttere = 50 in all cases, ~ettere becomes ~esso

 

sso

~imere = 9 in all cases, ~imere becomes ~esso

 

sso

~ìndere = 4 in all cases, ~ìndere becomes ~isso

 

sso

~otere = 5 in all cases, ~otere becomes ~osso

 

sso

~uòvere = 6 in all cases, ~uòvere becomes ~osso

 

sso

~utere = 3 in all cases, ~utere becomes ~usso

 

sso

       
The past participle of the following verbs end with ~to      

~àngere = 7 in all cases, ~àngere becomes ~anto

 

to

~àscere = 2 nàscere = nato; rinàscere = rinato

 

to

~gliere = 14 in all cases, ~gliere becomes ~lto

 

to

~ìstere = 11 in all cases, ~ìstere becomes ~istito

 

to

~ivere = 4 in all cases, becomes ~issuto

 

 

ssuto

~lgere = 15 in all cases, ~lgere becomes ~lto

 

to

~ncere = 6 in all cases, ~ncere becomes ~nto

 

to

~óndere = 2 in all cases, ~óndere becomes ~ósto

 

to

~òrgere = 6 in all cases, ~òrgere becomes ~òrto

 

to

~rcere = 7 in all cases, ~rcere becomes ~rto

 

to

~uere = 2 in all cases ~nguere becomes ~nto

 

to

~umere = 4 in all cases, ~umere becomes ~unto

 

to

~ùngere = 17 in all cases, ~ùngere becomes ~unto

 

to

vedére, ~vedére = 8 in all cases, ~edére becomes ~isto

to

~èggere = 10 in all cases, ~èggere becomes ~ètto

 

tto

~ìggere = 15 in all cases, ~ìggere becomes ~ìtto

 

tto

~ómpere = 5 in all cases, ~ómpere becomes ~ótto

 

tto

~rìvere = 14 in all cases, ~rìvere becomes ~ritto

 

tto

~ùggere = 2 in all cases, ~ùggere becomes ~ùtto

 

tto

Appendix A B C D E F G I

Index

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