affinché = in order that, so that  
Te lo dico affinché tu faccia qualcosa I'm telling you so that you can do something about it
Parla più forte affinché ti sèntano tutti Speak loudly so that everyone can hear you
   
alcunché  
1 (in   affirmative statements) = something  
Lui mi darà alcunché He will give me something.
2 (in all other statements) = anything  
C'è alcunché di vero in quello che dici? Is there anything true in what you say?
Se le occorre alcunché, me lo dica. If anything occurs to you, let me know.
Non vedevo alcunché. I couldn't see anything.
Non temo alcunché. I do not fear anything.
   
anche (a conjunction) with io, it is always contracted to anch’io  
1 too; also; as well, besides  
C'era anche lui. He was there, too; he was there as well.
Vengo anch'io. I'm coming too, also, as well..
Anche lui adesso si tira indietro. He too is pulling back now.
Anche noi non ci andiamo. Besides, we are not going.
Necèssito anche un cappotto. I also need a coat.
Noi partiamo domani, e anche loro. We are leaving tomorrow, and so are they.
Non ho fame e poi ho anche mal di testa. I'm not hungry, and besides I've got a headache
2 even, still  
Anche sua moglie lo accusa. Even his wife accuses him.
Mi ha anche dato dei soldi. He even gave me some money
Anche meglio   Even better, still better, better still
3 anche perché - partly because; chiefly because  
Non glielo detti anche perché non mi fidavo I didn't tell him partly because I didn't trust him.
4 anche se = even if, even though  
Anche se gli scrivessi, non verrebbe Even if I wrote to him, he wouldn't come.
Vendè tutto, anche se glielo sconsigliavo. He sold everything, even though I advised him against it
Anche se fosse? Even if it were so?
5 anche troppo = far too, far too much  
Sei stato anche troppo buono con lei. You were far too kind with her.
Ce n'è anche troppo. There is far too much
Used idiomatically with «potere»  
Possiamo anche andare. We may as well go.
Potevi anche dare una mano.   You might have given a hand.
Potresti anche salutare. You might say hello.
   
benché = although, (even) though  
Benché avesse ragione, tacquè. Although he was right, he kept quiet.
Rimase, benché fossero le undici passate. He stayed, though it was past eleven.
Benché lontani per età, sono amicìssimi. For all their age difference, they are close friends.

Used idiomatically in            il benché minimo = the slightest

 
Non ha fatto il benché minimo sforzo. He didn't make the slightest effort.
   
checché (an indefinite pronoun) = whatever  
Checché tu dica. Whatever you may say.
Checché accada. Whatever happens.
   
chiunque = whoever, whichever (person), anyone, anybody  
Chiunque venga, digli di aspettare. Whoever comes, tell him to wait.
Chiunque tu incontri, fermalo. Stop anyone you meet
Dallo a chiunque tu voglia.   Give it to whomever you like.
È una bellissima casa, di chiunque essa sia. It's a very fine house, to whomever it belongs.
Chiunque è capace di farlo.   Anybody can do that.
Chiunque avrebbe fatto altrettanto. Anyone would have done the same thing.
meglio di chiunque altro better than anyone else
   
comunque = anyway, in any case, whatever, however  
Partirò comunque.   I will leave anyway.
Comunque, una telefonata potevi farmela. In any case, you could have called me.
Comunque vadano le cose. Whatever happens; come what may.
Comunque si sia.   However that may be.
   
cosicché =   so, so that  
Restò via trent'anni, cosicché quando tornò nessuno lo riconobbe He was away for 30 years, so when he returned noone knew him.
   
dacché = since  
1 since (in the sense of time after an event)  
Dacché sono partiti, non mi hanno mai scritto Since they left, they've never written to me.
2 since (in the sense of due to or because of something)  
Gli scriverò, dacché tu lo vuoi.    I shall write to him since you want me to.
   
dovunque = everywhere, wherever  
Ho cercato dovunque. I have looked everywhere.
Dovunque io sia. Wherever I am.
Dovunque tu voglia.   Wherever you like.
   
dunque = so; therefore  
Ho detto che ci sarei andata e dunque ci andrò. I said I would go, so I will.
È malato, dunque non è la sua colpa. He is ill, so it's not his fault.
Perché dunque dovrei farlo? So why should I do it?
Eccoti dunque arrivato!   So here you are!
Dunque, cosa facciamo? So, what shall we do?
Expression: venire al dunque = to come to the point;  
   
finché = until  
1 until (in the sense up to an event ended)  
Rimasi finché fu finito. I stayed until it was over
Finché non l'avrai visto. Not until you have seen it
2 as long as  
Tieni il libro finché vuoi. Keep the book as long as you like
Finché vivrò. As long as I live.
Finché c'è vita, c'è speranza. Where there's life, there's hope
   
fuorché = but, except, save (in the sense of except)  
Tutti i giorni fuorché la Domenica.   Every day except Sunday
Dappertutto fuorché in cucina.    Everywhere except in the kitchen
Tutti fuorché mio fratello. Everybody but my brother.
Mi ricordai di tutto fuorché telefonarle. I remembered everything except to phone her
   
giacché = since, while  
Giacché me lo chiedi, te ne parlerò. Since you asked, I will tell you.
Giacché ci sei.       While you're at it.
   
granché = much  
Non ne so granché.      I don't know much about it
Non possiamo fare granché.    There isn't much we can do.
Non sono un granché a tennis. I'm not much good at tennis
La festa non fu un granché. It was not much of a party.
   
intanto  
1 in the meantime, meanwhile, while  
Tu telefona e io intanto prendo i posti. You go and phone while I get seats.
Intanto , a poche miglia da lì.      In the meantime, a few miles away.
Mi ascoltava e intanto faceva ghirigori. He listened to me, and, meanwhile, he kept doodling.
2 anyway  
Ma intanto cominciamo.     But, anyway, we are starting.
3 for one thing  
Intanto, vorrei essere consultato più spesso. For one thing, I'd like to be consulted more often.

4 with per to mean for the moment; for the time being.

 
Per intanto la tempesta ha passato.   For the time being, the storm has passed.
   
invece = instead, instead of, whereas  
Doveva andarci mia moglie, ma andai invece. My wife was supposed to go, but I went instead.
Aveva detto che non veniva, invece è venuto. He said he wasn't coming, instead he came.
Invece io penso che sia pericoloso. Whereas, I think it's dangerous.
Il modello nuovo è di plàstica, invece di vetro. The new model is plastic, instead of glass.
Invece di brontolare, potresti darci una mano. Instead of grumbling, you might give us a hand.
Vengo io invece di Roberto.       I'm coming instead of Robert.
   
macché =  of course not!, certainly not!, not at all!, no way!  
   
neanche  
1 nor, neither, not… either  
Non li conosco e neanche voglio conoscerli.   I haven't met them, nor do I want to meet them.
Non sa giocare a tennis e neanche io.     He can't play tennis, nor (or and neither) can I.
Non fuma, e neanche io.            She doesn't smoke, nor do I.
Neanche Lisa è venuta.    Lisa hasn't come, either.
2 even  
Non so neanche se mi faranno entrare.   I don't even know if they'll let me in.
senza neanche fermarsi      without even stopping
senza neanche un grazie    without even ( without so much as) a thank-you
Neanche un bambino ci passerebbe.    Not even a child would get through.
Neanche uno not one; not a single one
Non mi piace neanche un po'. I don't like it at all
Non ci penso neanche!      I haven't the slightest intention.
   
nonché  
1 as well as, and also  
È lungo nonché difficile. It is long as well as difficult.
C'era l'uomo nonché sua moglie. The man as well as his wife were there.
2 still less; let alone  
Non vorrei parlarne, nonché scriverne.

I wouldn't talk about it, let alone write about it.

   
perché  
1 why  
Perché non me l'hai detto? Why didn't you tell me?
Perché lo hai fatto?   Why did you do that?
Perché studi il cinese? Why are you studying Chinese?
Chissà perché non me ne ha parlato? I wonder why he didn't mention it to me
Dimmi perché non vuoi andare   Tell me why you don't want to go
Ecco perché     Here's, that's why.
Perché no? Why not?
Perché mai? Why on earth?; What on earth for?
ma perché? But why?
2 because, as  
Vendei l'auto perché era troppo grande.   I sold the car because it was too big.
Lavoro perché necessito il denaro   I work because I need the money.
Non vieni perché è troppo tardi.    She is not coming because it is too late.
3 so, in order that, so as, so that  
Ecco un elenco perché non dimentichi niente    Here's a list so that you won't forget anything
Non te l'ho detto perché non ti spaventassi I didn't tell you it so as not to frighten you
Gli spedii un fax perché potesse leggerela   I sent him a fax so that he might read it.
   
piuttosto  
1 more frequently  
Piove piuttosto in primavera che in estate. It rains more frequently in Spring than in Summer
2 rather, instead, just  
Prenderei piuttosto una birra. I would rather have a beer.
Ti telèfono, o piuttosto ti mando un fax. I'll call you, or just send you a fax.
Torna a casa, piuttosto. You had better go back home
Vadi tu, piuttosto. You go instead
3 rather, somewhat, fairly  
A me pare piuttosto carina. I think she is rather pretty.
È piuttosto difficile.   It's somewhat difficult.
Mi sento piuttosto stanco. I feel rather tired.
piuttosto bene! fairly well
piuttosto male!   rather badly
Piuttosto morire! I would rather die!
4 with che to mean rather… than  
Vivrei piuttosto a Londra che a Parigi. I would rather live in London than in Paris.
Piuttosto che averlo come socio vendo tutto Rather than have him as a partner I will sell everything.
Piuttosto morto che traditore.   Better dead than a traitor.
   
poiché = since (in the sense of because)  
Poiché pioveva, non uscii. Since it was raining, I didn't go out.
Poiché non ho denaro, non posso andare. Since I have no money, I can't go.
Poiché insisti, te lo dirò.    Since you insist, I'll tell you.
   
pressoché = nearly, almost, all but  
Ero pressoché arrivato.      I was nearly there.
È pressoché fatto.        It's almost done.
   
purché  
1 provided (that), on the condition that, as long as  
Ti aspetterò, purché tu ti sbrighi.   I'm going to wait for you, provided you hurry up.
Lo puoi prendere, purché tu lo tenga pulito. You can take it as long as you keep it clean.
2 as an exclamation:   if only, let's hope (that)  
Purché venga presto!    If only he would come soon!
Purché non piova! Let's hope it doesn't rain
   
qualche = some, a few, any  
When qualche is used, the word it modifies is ALWAYS singular  
qualche anno fa.   some (o a few) years ago
qualche tempo fa   some time ago
da qualche tempo for some time
per qualche minuto for a few minutes
per qualche motivo   for some reason
tra qualche giorno   in a few days' time
di qualche importanza of some importance
qualche altro some other, any other
qualche cosa (qualcosa) some thing
   
quandanche = even if  
Quandanche arrivassimo in tempo ~ Even if we get there in time ~
   
quasiché = as if  
Dà ordini a tutti quasiché fosse lui il padrone. He orders people about as if he were the owner.
   
quantunque = although, though, albeit  
Quantunque fosse piuttosto tardi, ci andai. I went, although it was rather late.
Accettai, quantunque malvolentieri.   I agreed, though not enthusiastically.
Quantunque piccoli, ci sono stati cambiamenti. There have been changes, albeit small ones.
Quantunque non so dove lo metteremo. Though I don't know where we will put it.

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-4 24-5

Appendix A B C D E F G H

Index

            

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