Appendix J Italian Conjunctions

affinché = in order that, so that

Te lo dico affinché tu faccia qualcosa             I'm telling you so that you can do something about it

Parla più forte affinché ti sèntano tutti            Speak loudly so that everyone can hear you



   1 (in  affirmative statements) = something

            Lui mi darà alcunché                                      He will give me something.

   2 (in all other statements) = anything

            C'è alcunché di vero in quello che dici?         Is there anything true in what you say?

            Se le occorre alcunché, me lo dica.                 Should you need anything, let me know.

            Non vedevo alcunché.                                                I couldn't see anything.

            Non temo alcunché.                                        I do not fear anything.


anche (a conjunction) with io, it is always contracted to anch’io

   1 too; also; as well, besides

            C'era anche lui.                                               He was there, too; he was there as well.

            Vengo anch'io.                                                I'm coming too (or as well).

            Anche lui adesso si tira indietro.                     He too is pulling back now.

            Anche noi non ci andiamo.                              We are not going either.

            Necessito anche un cappotto.                         I also need a coat.

            Noi partiamo domani, e anche loro.                We are leaving tomorrow, and so are they.

            Io odio i gatti e lei anche.                               I hate cats, and so does she.

            Non ho fame e poi ho anche mal di testa.      I'm not hungry and besides I've got a headache

   2 even, still

            Anche sua moglie lo accusa.                            Even his wife accuses him.

            Mi ha anche dato dei soldi.                            He even gave me some money

            Anche meglio                                                  Even better, still better

   3 anche perché - partly because; chiefly because

            Non glielo detti anche perché non mi fidavo I didn't tell him partly because I didn't trust him.

   4 anche se = even if, even though

            Anche se gli scrivessi, non verrebbe    .           Even if I wrote to him, he wouldn't come.

            Vendè tutto, anche se glielo sconsigliavo.      He sold everything, even though I advised him against it

            Anche se fosse?                                               Even if it were so?

   5 anche troppo = far too, far too much

            Sei stato anche troppo buono con lei.             You were far too kind with her.

            Ce n'è anche troppo.                                       There is far too much

   Used idiomatically with «potere»

            Possiamo anche andare.                                  We may as well go.

            Potevi anche dare una mano.                          You might have given a hand.

            Potresti anche salutare.                                   You might say hello.


benché = although, (even) though

            Benché avesse ragione, tacquè.                       Although he was right, he kept quiet.

            Rimase, benché fossero le undici passate.      He stayed, though it was past eleven.

            Benché lontani per età, sono amicìssimi.         For all their age difference, they are close friends.

   Used idiomatically in           il benché minimo = the slightest

            Non fece il benché minimo sforzo.                 He didn't make the slightest effort.


checché (an indefinite pronoun) = whatever

            Checché tu dica.                                             Whatever you may say.

            Checché accada.                                             Whatever happens; no matter what happens.

chiunque = whoever, whichever (person), anyone, anybody

            Chiunque venga, digli di aspettare.                Whoever comes, tell him to wait.

            Chiunque tu incontri, fermalo.                        Stop anyone you meet

            Dallo a chiunque tu voglia.                             Give it to whomever you like.

            È una bellissima casa, di chiunque essa sia.    It's a very fine house, to whomever it belongs.

            Farò vedere il quadro a chiunque lo desideri. I'll show the picture to anyone who wants to see it.

            Lo darò a chiunque di voi incontrerò per primo. I'll give it to whichever of you I meet first.

            Chiunque è capace di farlo.                            Anybody can do that.

            Chiunque avrebbe fatto altrettanto.                Anyone would have done the same thing.

            meglio di chiunque altro                                 better than anyone else


comunque = anyway, in any case, whatever, however

            Partirò comunque.                                           I will leave anyway.

            Comunque, una telefonata potevi farmela.     In any case, you could have called me.

            Comunque vadano le cose.                             Whatever happens; come what may.

            Comunque si sia.                                             However that may be.


cosicché =  so, so that

            Restò via trent'anni, cosicché quando tornò nessuno lo riconobbe

                        He was away for thirty years, so when he came back no one recognized him.


dacché = since

   1 since (in the sense of time after an event)

            Dacché sono partiti, non mi hanno mai scritto           Since they left, they've never written to me.

   2 since (in the sense of due to or because of something)

            Gli scriverò, dacché tu lo vuoi.                       I shall write to him since you want me to.


dovunque = everywhere, wherever

            Ho cercato dovunque.                                     I have looked everywhere.

            Dovunque io sia.                                             Wherever I am.

            Dovunque tu voglia.                                        Wherever you like.


dunque = so; therefore

            Ho detto che ci sarei andata e dunque ci andrò.         I said I would go, so I will.

            È malato, dunque non è colpa sua                               He is ill, so it's not his fault.

            Perché dunque dovrei farlo?                                       So why should I do it?

            Eccoti dunque arrivato!                                               So here you are!

            Dunque, cosa facciamo?                                             So, what shall we do?

Expression:      venire al dunque = to get to the point; to get down to business; to get down to brass tacks.


finché = until

   1 until (in the sense up to an event ended)

            Rimasi finché fu finito.                       I stayed until it was over

            Finché non l'avrai visto.                      Not until you have seen it

2 as long as

            Tieni il libro finché vuoi.                     Keep the book as long as you like

            Finché vivrò.                                       As long as I live.

            Finché c'è vita, c'è speranza.               Where there's life, there's hope.


fuorché = but, except, save (in the sense of except)

            Tutti i giorni fuorché la Domenica.                 Every day except Sunday

            Dappertutto fuorché in cucina.                       Everywhere except in the kitchen

            Tutti fuorché mio fratello.                               Everybody but my brother.

            Mi ricordai di tutto fuorché telefonarle.         I remembered everything except to phone her


giacché = since, while

            Giacché me lo chiedi, te ne parlerò.                Since you asked, I will tell you.

            Giacché ci sei.                                                 While you're at it.


granché = much

            Non ne so granché.                             I don't know much about it

            Non possiamo fare granché.               There isn't much we can do.

            Non sono un granché a tennis.           I'm not much good at tennis

            La festa non fu un granché.                It was not much of a party.

            Non mi piace granché.                        I don't like it much

            Non è stato granché.                           It wasn't much.


intanto =

   1 in the meantime, meanwhile, while

            Tu telefona e io intanto prendo i posti.           You go and phone while I get seats.

            Intanto, a poche miglia da lì.                           In the meantime, a few miles away.

            Mi ascoltava e intanto faceva ghirigori.          He listened to me, and, meanwhile, he kept doodling.

   2 anyway

            Ma intanto cominciamo.                                  But, anyway, we are starting.

   3 for one thing

            Intanto, vorrei essere consultato più spesso.   For one thing, I'd like to be consulted more often.

   4 with per to mean for the moment; for the time being.

            Per intanto la tempesta ha passato.                 For the time being, the storm has passed.


invece = instead, instead of, whereas

            Doveva andarci mia moglie, ma andai invece.            My wife was supposed to go, but I went instead.           

            Invece io penso che sia pericoloso.                              Whereas, I think it's dangerous.

            Il modello nuovo è di plastica, invece di vetro.          The new model is plastic, instead of glass.

            Invece di brontolare, potresti darci una mano.            Instead of grumbling, you might give us a hand.

            Vengo io invece di Bob.                                              I'm coming instead of Bob.


macché =  of course not!, certainly not!, not at all!, no way!



   1 nor, neither, not… either

            Non li conosco e neanche voglio conoscerli.              I haven't met them, nor do I want to meet them.

            Non sa giocare a tennis e neanche io.                         He can't play tennis, nor (or and neither) can I.

            Non fuma, e neanche io.                                             She doesn't smoke, nor do I.

            Neanche Lisa è venuta.                                               Lisa hasn't come, either

   2 even

            Non so neanche se mi faranno entrare.                       I don't even know if they'll let me in.

            senza neanche fermarsi                                               without even stopping

            senza neanche un grazie                                              without even ( without so much as) a thank-you

            Neanche un bambino ci passerebbe.                           Not even a child would get through.

            Neanche uno                                                               not one; not a single one

            Non mi piace neanche un po'.                                     I don't like it at all

            Non ci penso neanche!                                                I haven't the slightest intention.

            Neanche per sogno!                                                    I wouldn't dream of it!, not a chance!



   1 as well as, and also

            È lungo nonché difficile.                                            It is long as well as difficult.

            C'era l'uomo nonché sua moglie.                                 The man as well as his wife were there.

   2 still less; let alone

            Non vorrei parlarne, nonché scriverne.                       I wouldn't talk about it, let alone write about it.



   1 why

            Perché non me l'hai detto?                             Why didn't you tell me?

            Perché lo hai fatto?                                         Why did you do that? What did you do that for?

            Perché studi il cinese?                                    What are you studying Chinese for?

            Chissà perché non me ne ha parlato?              I wonder why he didn't mention it to me

            Dimmi perché non vuoi andare                       Tell me why you don't want to go

            Ecco perché                                                    That's why

            Perché no?                                                      Why not?

            Perché mai?                                                    Why on earth?; What on earth for?

            ma perché?                                                      But why?

   2 because, as

            Vendei l'auto perché era troppo grande.         I sold the car because it was too big.

            Lavoro perché necessito il denaro                  I work because I need the money.

            Non vieni perché è troppo tardi.                     She is not coming because it is too late.

   3 so, in order that, so as, so that

            Ecco un elenco perché non dimentichi niente            Here's a list so that you won't forget anything;          Non te l'ho detto perché non ti spaventassi,                       I didn't tell you it so as not to frighten you.

            Gli spedii un fax perché potesse leggerela                  I sent him a fax so that he might read it.



   1 more frequently

            Piove piuttosto in primavera che in estate.      It rains more frequently in Spring than in Summer.

   2 rather, instead, just

            Prenderei piuttosto una birra.                          I would rather have a beer.

            Ti telefono, o piuttosto ti mando un fax.         I'll call you, or just send you a fax.

            Torna a casa, piuttosto.                                    You had better go back home

            Vadi tu, piuttosto.                                           You go instead

   3 rather, somewhat, fairly

            A me pare piuttosto carina.                              I think she is rather pretty.

            È piuttosto difficile.                                        It's somewhat difficult.

            Mi sento piuttosto stanco.                               I feel rather tired.

            piuttosto bene!                                                 fairly well

            piuttosto male!                                     rather badly

            Piuttosto morire!                                              I would rather die!

   4 with che to mean rather… than

            Vivrei piuttosto a Londra che a Parigi.            I would rather live in London than in Paris.

            Piuttosto che averlo come socio vendo tutto. Rather than have him as a partner I will sell everything.

            Piuttosto morto che traditore.                         Better dead than a traitor.


poiché = since (in the sense of because)

            Poiché pioveva, non uscii.                              Since it was raining, I didn't go out.

            Poiché non ho denaro, non posso andare.      Since I have no money, I can't go.

            Poiché insisti, te lo dirò.                                 Since you insist, I'll tell you.


pressoché = nearly, almost, all but

            Ero pressoché arrivato.                                   I was nearly there.

            È pressoché fatto.                                           It's almost done.



   1 provided (that), on the condition that, as long as

            Ti aspetterò, purché tu ti sbrighi.                    I'm going to wait for you, provided you hurry up.

            Lo puoi prendere, purché tu lo tenga pulito.  You can take it as long as you keep it clean.

   2 as an exclamation:  if only, let's hope (that)

            Purché venga presto!                                      If only he would come soon!

            Purché non piova!                                           Let's hope it doesn't rain


qualche = some, a few, any    NOTE: When qualche is used, the word it modifies is ALWAYS singular.

            qualche anno fa.                                  some (o a few) years ago

            qualche tempo fa                                some time ago

            da qualche tempo                                for some time

            per qualche minuto                             for a few minutes

            per qualche motivo                             for some reason

            tra qualche giorno                               in a few days' time

            non senza qualche difficoltà               not without some difficulty

            di qualche importanza                         of some importance

            Ti darò qualche libro.                          I'll give you some books.

            Invitiamo qualche amico.                    Let's invite a few friends.

            Ho bisogno di qualche consiglio.        I need some advice.

            C'era solo qualche persona.                 There were only a few people there.

            Vuoi qualche caramella?                     Would you like some sweets?

            Non ha qualche amico?                       Hasn't he got any friends?

            Lo disse con qualche certezza.           He said it with some certainty.

            Deve avere qualche fonte di reddito. He must have some source of income.

            Verrò a trovarti, qualche giorno.         I'll come and see you some day.


            qualche altro                                       some other, any other

            qualche cosa (qualcosa)                      some thing

            qualche volta                                       sometimes, occasionally, a few times

            in qualche modo                                 somehow; some way or other

            in qualche posto                                  somewhere; someplace, anywhere

            da qualche parte                                  around here, hereabouts


quandanche = even if

            Quandanche arrivassimo in tempo…  Even if we get there in time…


quasiché = as if

            Dà ordini a tutti quasiché fosse lui il padrone.           He orders people about as if he were the owner.


quantunque = although, though, albeit

            Quantunque fosse piuttosto tardi, ci andai.                I went, although it was rather late.

            Accettai, quantunque malvolentieri.                           I agreed, though not enthusiastically.

            Ci sono stati cambiamenti quantunque piccoli,.          There have been changes, albeit small ones.

            Quantunque non so dove lo metteremo.                     Though I don't know where we will put it.