Chapter 24 part 4


per = about, all over, along, by, for, in, on, through:
1. (way) through
            Passò per Roma                                               He passed through Rome
            entrare per la ~                                                to come in through the ~
            errare per il mọndo                                          to wander all over the world
            cadere giù per le scale                                     to fall down the stairs
            per tutto il corpo                                             all over the body
            per terra e per mare                                         over land and sea
2 (direction) for, to
            partire per ~                                                     to leave for ~
            proseguire per Roma                                       to go on to Rome
            Ho una grande speranza per lei                       I have great hope for her
3 (place) in, on
            per la strada                                                     in the street
            per terra                                                           on the ground
4 (duration of time) for, through, throughout
            per due ore                                                      for two hours
            per quest'anno                                                 for this year
            per il momẹnto                                                for the time being
            per sempre                                                       forever
            per la vita                                                        for life
            per la prima volta                                            for the first time
            per domani                                                      for tomorrow
            per le sei                                                          by six
            per la fine del mẹse                                         by the end of the month
5 (method) by
            spedire per posta                                             to send by mail
            per lẹttera                                                        by letter
            per telẹfono                                                     by phone
            per telegramma                                                by telegram
            per alzata di mano                                           by a show of hands
            uno per uno                                                     one by one
            il dieci per cento                                              ten per cent
            per persona                                                      per person, each, apiece
            due per pạgina                                                 two on each page
            giọrno per giọrno                                             day by day
6 (cause) because of, due to, for,on account of,out of, over, owing to, through
            per causa loro                                                  because of them, on account of them
            per colpa mia                                                   through my fault
            per motivi di famiglia                                      for family reasons
            per ambiziọne                                                  out of ambition
            per principio                                                    on principle
            per nẹbbia                                                        on account of the fog

7 (mathematics) by
            dividere per                                                     to divide by
            moltiplicare per                                               to multiply by
used with idiomatically to mean as:
            arrivare per primo                                            to arrive first
            avere per ~                                                      to have as something
            dare per disperso                                             to report as missing
            dare per morto                                                 to report as dead
            prendere per moglie                                        to take as a wife

presso = beside, near, next to, not far from:
1 (location) near, not far from
            presso Messina                                                near Messina
            presso la ragazza                                             beside the girl
            presso la porta                                                 next to the door
2 (figuratively) at, to with
            fermare presso                                                 to stay with
            prendere presso                                               to inquire at
            lavorare presso                                                to work for
            scrịvere presso                                                 to write in care of
            ẹssere presso a ~                                              to be close to ~

prima di = before, prior, rather
1 (time) before, prior to
            prima delle 10                                                 before 10
            prima del 1980                                                prior to 1980
            prima di Cristo                                                before Christ
            prima di tutto                                                  first of all
2 (distance - actual or figurative) before
            cinquanta metri prima di ~                              fifty metres before the ~
            prima di partire                                                before leaving
            arrivare prima di ~                                           to arrive sooner than~
3 (rather) rather, than
            fare morire prima di ~                                     to die rather than ~
            Prima la morte che il disonọre             Death rather than dishonour.

rasente = close to
            rasente la casa                                                 close to the house
            rasente terra                                                     close to the ground, skimming the ground
            volare rasente il pelo dell'acqua                      to skim the surface of the water
            passare rasente                                                to barely miss

scevro = devoid, devoid of, free, free from, without
            scevro di illusiọni                                            devoid of or without illusions
            scevro di vizi                                                   without or free from vice
            non scevro di cọlpe                                         not without blame.


secọndo = along, according to; when it is used with a personal pronoun, senza is always followed by di
1 (direction) along, with
            secọndo la corrente                                         with the current
            secọndo di fiume                                            downstream
            secọndo la linea tratteggiata                           along the dotted line
            secọndo il vento                                              with the wind
2 (conform to or with) according to, in accordance with; in conformity with, under
            secọndo le clausole del trattato                       under the terms of the treaty
            secọndo la moda francese                               according to the French fashion
            secọndo gli accordi                                         according to the agreements
            secọndo il solito                                              as usual
            secọndo i piani                                                according to plan, the plans
            secọndo le regole                                            following the rules
            secọndo l'uso                                                   in accordance with usage
            agire secọndo coscienza                                  to act according to conscience
            agire secọndo la legge                                     to act in accordance with the law
            vivere secọndo natura                                     to live in accord with nature
            secọndo il giudizio dei più                              in the opinion of the majority
            secọndo mẹ                                                     in my opinion
            secọndo lui                                                      according to him
            secọndo l'opiniọne corrente                            in the current view
            secọndo il bisogno                                          according to the need, as needed
            secọndo il caso                                                according to the case
            secọndo le circostanze                                                according to the circumstances
            secọndo le condiziọni del tempo                    depending on the weather
            secọndo le esigenze del caso                           as the occasion may require
            ricompensare secọndo il męrito                       to reward according to merit

senza = without (in all senses), also translated into English by words ending in -less, -lessly, or -free
            senza aiuto                                                      without help, unaided, unassisted
            senza cappello                                                 without a hat
            senza casa                                                        homeless
            senza di me                                                     without me
            senza grassi                                                     without fat, fat-free
            senza peso                                                       weightless
            senza sale                                                        without salt, saltless, salt free
            senza successo                                                 without success, unsuccessful, unsuccessfully
            ẹssere senza ~                                                  to be without something
            rimanere senza ~                                             to be left without something

sọpra = on, onto, on top of, over, upon; when it is used with a personal pronoun, sọpra is always followed by di
1 (location) on, onto, on top of
            sọpra i campi                                                   on the fields
            sọpra il tạvolo                                                  upon the table
            mettere ~ sọpra ~                                            to put ~ on top of something
            una sọpra latria                                                one on top of the other


2 (position) above, over -both figurative and actual
            Una spada pende sọpra il mio capo                a sword is hanging over my head
            la tovaglia stesa sọpra il tạvolo                       the tablecloth spread over the table
            Portava il camice sọpra il vestito                     he wore a white coat over his suit
            l'aereo volava sọpra la città                             the plane was flying over the town
            sọpra il livello del mare                                   above sea level
            sọpra la media                                                 above average
            l'appartamẹnto sọpra di noi                             the apartment above us
            Roma è sọpra Nạpoli                                       Rome is above Naples
            comandare sọpra                                             to rule over a town
            fare errori sọpra errori                                     to make mistake after mistake
            sọpra i dieci anni                                             over ten, ten years of age
            ẹssere valutato sọpra ~                                    to be worth over, more than ~
            sọpra ogni cosa                                                above all, more than anything else, most of all
            sọpra ogni altra cosa                                        more than anything else
            sọpra tutti                                                        above all

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-5

Appendix A B C D E F G H I


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