Chapter 24 part 5

 

sọtto = below, beneath, under, underneath (in all senses); when it is used with a personal pronoun, sọtto is always followed by di; before words beginning with o, it is shortened to sott’

1 (position) below, beneath, under, underneath
            sọtto un albero                                                            under a tree
            sọtto una coperta                                             under a blanket
            sọtto il fuoco del nẹmico                                under enemy fire
            sọtto la lèttera B                                              under the letter B
            sọtto il mare                                                    beneath the sea
            sọtto i miei occhi                                             under my very eyes
            sọtto (la) terra                                                  under (the) ground, below (the) ground
            sọtto lo stesso tetto                                         under the same roof
            sọtto il naso                                                     under your nose
2 (at a low level) below, less than, under
            sọtto costo                                                       below cost
            sọtto il livello del mare                                    below sea level
            sọtto l'equatọre                                                below the equator
            andare sọtto ~                                                 to go below or under ~
            sọtto il chilǫmetro                                           less than a kilometer
            sọtto il limite di velocità                                 below the speed limit
            sọtto la media                                                  below average
            sọtto la pari                                                     below par
            sọtto zero                                                        below zero
            sọtto i ~ anni                                                   below ~ age
            di poco sọtto ~                                                            just under ~
            sọtto gli auspici di                                           under the auspices of
            sọtto la direziọne di                                        under the direction of
            sọtto la giurisdiziọne di                                   under the jurisdiction of
            lavorare sọtto di ~                                           to work under ~

 

3 (mode or cause) on, under
            sọtto altro nome                                              under another name
            sọtto chiave                                                     under lock and key
            sọtto controllo                                                 under control
            sọtto giuramẹnto                                             under oath
            sọtto pena di morte                                         under penalty of death
            sọtto ogni punto di vista                                 from every point of view
4 (near, around)
            sọtto Natale                                                     near Christmas, at Christmas time
            sọtto le vacanze                                               around vacation time
5 (commercial ) in
            sọtto aceto                                                       in vinegar, pickled
            sott'ǫlio                                                           in oil
            sọtto sale                                                         in brine.

su = on, onto, on top of, out of, up, upon
            contracted with articles as follows
            su + il = sul      su + i = sui       su + lo = sullo  su + gli = sugli
            su + la = sulla  su + le = sulle  su + l' = sull'
1 (position - actual or figurative) on, upon
            su un lato                                                         on one side
            sull'orlo                                                            on the edge
            sul tạvolo                                                         on the table
            salire sul treno                                                 to get on or onto the train
            una sull'altra                                                    one on top of the other
            una vittoria sul nemịco                                    a victory over the enemy
            avere un vantaggio su ~                                  to have an advantage over ~
            regnare su un paese                                         to rule over a country
            torreggiare su ~                                               to tower over ~
2 (location) along, on
            spalmarsi crema sul viso                                  to spread cream on one's face
            passeggiare sul lungo mare                              to stroll along the seafront
            Parigi è sulla Senna                                         Paris is on the Seine
3 (direction) on, to
            marciare sulla capitale                                     to march to the capital
            sparare sulla folla                                            to fire on the crowd
4 (subject) on (in the sense of about)
            un libro sulla vecchiạia                                    a book on old age
            Su che cosa parlerai?                                       About what will you speak?
5 (approximation) about, around, roughly
            sul fare dell'alba                                              about dawn
            sul finire del sẹcolo                                         around the end of the century
            sul mezzodì                                                     about noon
            sul presto                                                         early
            sul tardi                                                           late
            un uomo sulla sessantina                                 a man about or around sixty
            costare sui 200 dǫllari                                     to cost around 200 dollars

 

6 (proportion) out of
            sette su dieci                                                   seven out of ten
            due giorni su tre                                              two days out of three

tra = amid, amidst, among, between, within; when it is used with a personal pronoun, tra is always followed by di
1 (place) among, between
            una casa tra due strade                                    a house between two streets
            la proprietà è divisa tra noi                              the property is divided among us
            C'è poco da scegliere tra l'uno e lacto             there isn't much to choose between them
            tra il dolce e il salato                                       between sweet and salty
            tra le sette e le otto                                          between seven and eight
2 (in the midst of) amid, amidst, among
            tra gli applausi della fọlla                                amid the cheering of the crowd
            tra gli alberi                                                     among the trees
            farsi largo tra la fọlla                                       to make one's way through the crowd
            perso tra la fọlla                                              lost in the crowd
            rovistare tra vecchie fọto                                to rummage through old photos
            passare tutto il tempo tra ~                             to spend all one's time among ~
3 (time or distance) in; within
            tra due giọrni                                                   within two days
            tra poco                                                           in a little while, shortly
            tra un paio d'ọre                                              in a couple of hours
            tra una settimana                                             in a week's time
            tra due chilǫmetri                                            within two kilometers
4 (part of a group) among, of
            il migliore tra tutti                                           the best of all
            uno tra tanti                                                     one of many
            un esempio tra tanti                                         one example among many
            uno tra mille                                                    one in a thousand
            Chi tra di voi?                                                 Which of you?
5 (to indicate a range of value, time) between ~ and ~
            costare tra ~ e ~                      `                       to cost between ~ and ~
            tra le trẹnta e le quaranta persọne                   between thirty and forty people
            arrivare tra ~ e ~                                              to arrive between ~ and ~
            decidere tra ~ e ~                                            to decide between ~ and ~
            ragazzi tra i 10 e i 15 anni                               boys and girls between 10 and 15
            avere tra ~ e ~ anni                                         to be between ~ and ~ years of age

tramezzo = in the middle of; among; between (a synonym for tra, used in the same way)

tramite = through (in the sense of method), via
            tramite banca                                                   through a bank
            tramite fax                                                       via fax
            tramite la posta                                                via mail
            tramite telefonata                                            by telephone
            fare sapere tramite ~                                       to let someone know through another person

 

verso = against (in the sense of versus), in the direction of , versus
1 (in the direction of) in the direction of, to, toward, towards; also translated into English with words ending in -ward or wards; when it is used with a personal pronoun, verso is always followed by di
            verso l'alto                                                       upward, upwards
            verso il basso                                                   downward, downwards
            verso est                                                          east, eastward, eastwards, in an easterly direction,
            [towards the east; likewise with the other directions, north, south, and west]
            verso l'esterno                                                 outward, outwards, outwardly
            verso l'intero                                                    inward, inwards, inwardly
            andare verso ~                                                 to go towards someone
            andare verso casa                                            to go homeward, homewards
            girarsi verso ~                                                  to turn to or towards someone
            guardare verso ~                                             to look in someone or something's direction
            voltarsi verso destra                                        to turn right or to the right
            verso l'alba                                                      towards dawn
            verso sera                                                        towards evening

vicino a = beside, by, close to, in the neighborhood of, near, next to
            vicino a Milano                                               near Milan
            un luogo vicino al fiume                                 a place by the river
            la sedia vicino al tạvolo                                   the chair next to the table
            vicino a mẹ                                                      close to me
            esaminare ~ più da vicino                               to have a closer look at something
            vederci bene da vicino                                    to see well from close up.

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-4

Appendix A B C D E F G H I

Index

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